First Mass Struggle and its Consequences (1918-1927) PPT

First-Mass-Struggle-and-its-Consequences

First Mass Struggle and its Consequences

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  • The First Mass Struggle in India, also known as the Non-Cooperation Movement, was a pivotal chapter in the country’s fight for independence from British colonial rule. Launched in 1919 and lasting until 1922, it marked a significant shift in the approach and tactics employed by the Indian National Congress and other nationalist leaders. This movement, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, was characterized by mass mobilization, nonviolent resistance, and the collective will of the Indian people to achieve self-rule.

First Mass Struggle and its Consequences – LEC 8

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The First Mass Struggle and its Consequences in Colonial India (1918-1927)

India’s struggle for independence against British colonial rule was marked by a series of significant events and movements that shaped the course of the nation’s history. One of the pivotal phases in this struggle was from 1919 to 1922, which saw the emergence of the first mass movements against British oppression. This article explores the key events of this period and their lasting consequences on India’s fight for freedom.

  1. The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms: In 1919, the British government introduced the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, a step towards self-government for Indians. However, the reforms were met with mixed reactions as they did not fulfill the Indian aspiration for complete self-determination. The introduction of separate electorates deepened communal tensions, highlighting the challenges faced by Indian society in its quest for unity.
  2. The Rowlatt Act & Satyagraha against it: The passage of the Rowlatt Act in 1919, allowing for arbitrary arrests without trial, sparked widespread outrage. In response, Mahatma Gandhi led the Satyagraha movement, advocating nonviolent resistance against this draconian law. The protests and strikes that ensued demonstrated the unity and determination of the Indian people, revealing the power of nonviolent protest in the face of oppressive legislation.
  3. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: The Jallianwala Bagh massacre of April 1919 stands as a haunting reminder of British brutality. General Dyer’s troops indiscriminately fired upon a peaceful gathering in Amritsar, resulting in numerous casualties. This tragic event shocked the nation and fueled the fervor for independence. It served as a catalyst, galvanizing public sentiment against British rule and intensifying the demand for complete sovereignty.
  4. Khilafat & Non-Cooperation Movement, 1919-22: The Khilafat Movement, born out of solidarity with the global Islamic community, found resonance among Indian Muslims. Mahatma Gandhi, recognizing an opportunity for Hindu-Muslim unity, incorporated the Khilafat cause into the Non-Cooperation Movement launched in 1920. This movement emphasized nonviolent resistance, non-cooperation with the British, and the promotion of Swadeshi, showcasing the unity of purpose among diverse Indian communities.
  5. Post-Non-Cooperation Situation: The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 led to a period of reflection and reassessment within the Indian National Congress and the Indian political landscape. While the movement’s halt disappointed many, it left an indelible mark on India’s freedom struggle. It fostered nationalism, unity, and self-confidence among Indians, paving the way for future strategies emphasizing civil disobedience and nonviolence.

Conclusion: The events of 1919-1922 constituted the first mass struggle against British colonialism in India, leaving behind a legacy of resilience and determination. These movements not only highlighted the injustices of colonial rule but also showcased the power of nonviolent resistance and unity among Indians. The period laid the foundation for subsequent mass movements, eventually culminating in India’s independence in 1947. The sacrifices made and the lessons learned during this time continue to inspire generations, reminding the world of the enduring spirit of India’s fight for freedom.

Also Read: India Journalism


What is the Non-Cooperation Movement 1920-1922?

The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase in India’s struggle for independence against British colonial rule. Launched in 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, this movement aimed to protest against repressive British policies and achieve self-rule through nonviolent resistance. Here’s a table summarizing the key aspects of the Non-Cooperation Movement:

Aspect Details
Years of Operation
  • 1920-1922
Leadership
  • Led by Mahatma Gandhi and supported by the Indian National Congress, along with various other regional leaders and organizations.
Primary Objective
  • To protest against British repression and demand self-rule (Swaraj) for India through nonviolent resistance, Non-cooperation with British institutions, and the boycott of British goods and services.
Methods of Resistance
  • Boycotting British goods and institutions, advocating the use of Swadeshi (indigenous) products.
  • Non-cooperation with British authorities, including resignations from government posts, schools, and other British-run services.
  • Peaceful protests, strikes, and civil disobedience against colonial policies.
Communal Harmony
  • Actively promoted communal harmony, encouraging participation from Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and other communities, fostering a sense of national unity against British rule.
Economic Impact
  • Indians boycotted British-made goods, promoting self-reliance and indigenous products.
  • Encouraged the use of indigenous goods, leading to economic self-reliance and self-sufficiency.
  • Resulted in economic hardships for British businesses due to the boycott of their products and services.
Political Awareness
  • Significantly increased political awareness among the masses, empowering ordinary citizens and making them aware of their rights and the need for self-governance.
End of the Movement
  • Suspended in 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident, where protesters turned violent, leading Mahatma Gandhi to halt the movement, emphasizing the importance of disciplined nonviolence in the struggle for independence.
Legacy and Influence
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement served as a precursor to future independence movements, emphasizing the power of nonviolent resistance and unity among diverse communities in the fight against colonial rule.
  • Served as a precursor to future independence movements, establishing nonviolent resistance as a potent tool in the fight against colonialism.
  • Inspired similar movements worldwide, emphasizing the power of mass mobilization and civil disobedience.
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement remains a pivotal period in India’s freedom struggle, shaping the nation’s ethos of peaceful resistance, unity, and determination in the pursuit of independence.
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement remains a crucial chapter in India’s history, illustrating the effectiveness of nonviolence and civil disobedience as potent tools in the struggle for independence. It paved the way for subsequent movements, further strengthening the resolve of the Indian people in their quest for self-determination and freedom.

First-Mass-Struggle-and-its-Consequences
First-Mass-Struggle-and-its-Consequences

What are The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms?

The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were constitutional reforms introduced by the British government in India in 1919. They were named after Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State for India, and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India at that time. These reforms represented an important step towards self-government in India. Below is a complete table summarizing the key points of the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms:

Aspect Details
Introduction Year
  • 1919
Reform Proposers
  • Edwin Montagu (Secretary of State for India) and Lord Chelmsford (Viceroy of India)
Main Objective
  • To introduce self-governing institutions in India and gradually move towards responsible government
Powers Division
  • Divided powers between central and provincial subjects. Central subjects remained under British control. Provincial subjects were divided into reserved (under British control) and transferred (under Indian control) categories.
Bicameral Legislature
  • Introduced a bicameral legislature at the provincial level. Legislative Assembly (elected by the people) and Council of State (indirectly elected).
Franchise
  • Limited franchise based on property, tax payments, and education qualifications.
Separate Electorates
  • Continued the system of separate electorates for Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, and other minority communities.
Reserved Seats
  • Reserved seats for minorities in both central and provincial legislatures.
Diarchy System
  • Introduced diarchy in provinces, where certain areas of administration were dual-controlled by British and Indian officials.
Executive Councils
  • Indian members are included in the executive councils at both central and provincial levels.
  • Executive councils were responsible for administering transferred subjects.
Criticism
  • Criticized for not granting full self-government, leading to dissatisfaction among Indian political leaders.
  • Seen as an attempt to preserve British control rather than empower Indians.
Legacy
  • Laid the foundation for future constitutional developments in India.
  • The reforms were later followed by the Government of India Act 1935, which further expanded Indian participation in governance.
End of Diarchy
  • The diarchy system was abolished in 1935 through the Government of India Act, allowing Indian ministers to take charge of the entire administration at the provincial level.

In summary, the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were a significant milestone in India’s constitutional history, marking a transition towards self-government and increased Indian participation in the political process. However, they were met with criticism for not going far enough in granting genuine self-rule to India.


What is The Rowlatt Act and Satyagraha against it?

The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, was a repressive law enacted by the British colonial government in India during the First World War. The Act authorized the government to arrest and detain individuals without trial, curbing civil liberties and freedom of speech. It was named after Sir Sidney Rowlatt, the chairman of the Rowlatt Committee that recommended its implementation. The Act was deeply unpopular in India, leading to widespread protests and a significant event in the Indian freedom struggle. Here’s a complete table summarizing the Rowlatt Act and the Satyagraha (nonviolent resistance) against it:

Rowlatt Act

The Rowlatt Act was a controversial legislative measure enacted by the British colonial government in India in March 1919. It was officially known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 and was named after its sponsor, Sir Sidney Rowlatt, a British judge. The act allowed the British authorities to arrest and detain Indians without trial, curbing civil liberties and suppressing political opposition.

Aspect Details
Enactment Year
  • 1919
Purpose
  • To curb revolutionary activities and suppress political dissent in India during the freedom struggle.
Provisions
  • Allowed for arrest and detention without trial of individuals suspected of being involved in revolutionary activities.
  • Limited civil liberties, including freedom of speech and assembly.
  • Established special tribunals for speedy trials.
Controversy
  • Faced widespread opposition from Indians who saw it as a repressive measure infringing upon their rights and liberties.
Impact
  • This led to widespread protests, civil unrest, and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar (1919). It fueled anti-British sentiments and played a significant role in the independence movement.

Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act

Mahatma Gandhi led the Satyagraha movement against the Rowlatt Act. Satyagraha, which means “truth force” or “soul force,” was a nonviolent resistance strategy employed by Gandhi and his followers during the Indian independence movement.

Aspect Details
Leader
  • Mahatma Gandhi
Method
  • Nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, and peaceful protests against the Rowlatt Act.
Objectives
  • – Repeal of the Rowlatt Act.
  • Restoration of civil liberties and freedom of speech.
  • Opposing arbitrary arrests and detention without trial.
Tactics
  • – Nationwide hartals (strikes) were organized.
  • Peaceful marches, demonstrations, and public meetings were held.
  • Noncooperation with the authorities.
  • Boycott of British goods.
Impact
  • The Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act galvanized public opinion against British rule, fostering a spirit of unity and resistance among Indians. It highlighted the power of nonviolent protest in the struggle for independence.

The Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act was a pivotal moment in India’s freedom struggle, showcasing the effectiveness of nonviolent resistance in mobilizing the masses and challenging unjust laws.


What is the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was a tragic incident that occurred on April 13, 1919, in Amritsar, Punjab, during the British colonial rule in India. It is one of the most infamous events in the history of the Indian independence movement. Here’s a complete table summarizing the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:

Aspect Details
Date
  • April 13, 1919
Location
  • Jallianwala Bagh, a public garden in Amritsar, Punjab, India
Background
  • – The massacre occurred during a period of widespread unrest in India, marked by protests against the repressive Rowlatt Act and other colonial policies.
  • On April 10, 1919, martial law was imposed in Amritsar by the British authorities.
Event
  • A large crowd, including men, women, and children, had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh to protest peacefully against the Rowlatt Act and other British policies.
  • British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on the unarmed crowd without any warning or provocation.
  • The troops fired for about ten minutes, killing and injuring a large number of people. The exact number of casualties is disputed, but it is estimated that hundreds of people were killed and thousands were injured.
Casualties
  • The exact number of casualties is uncertain due to the chaotic nature of the event, but it is widely believed that hundreds of people were killed, and thousands were injured.
British Response
  • The British colonial authorities, instead of expressing remorse, praised Brigadier General Dyer’s actions, and he was even lauded by some sections of British society in England.
  • Dyer was relieved of duty but became a hero to some in Britain who supported his actions.
Impact
  • The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre deeply shocked the Indian population and led to widespread outrage against British rule.
  • It galvanized the Indian independence movement and contributed to the momentum for freedom from colonial rule.
  • The event remains a symbol of British colonial brutality and continues to be remembered as a dark chapter in India’s history.
Legacy
  • The massacre had a profound impact on India’s struggle for independence, further fueling the demand for self-rule and intensifying the nationalist movement.
  • The site of the massacre, Jallianwala Bagh, has been preserved as a memorial and is visited by people from around the world to pay their respects to the victims.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is a deeply significant event in India’s history, representing the brutality of colonial rule and the resilience of the Indian people in their fight for freedom.


What is Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement, 1919-22?

The Khilafat Movement and the Non-Cooperation Movement were two significant movements in India’s struggle for independence, both occurring between 1919 and 1922. Here’s a complete table summarizing these movements:

Aspect Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922)
Background The Khilafat Movement was initiated by Indian Muslims to protest against the end of the Ottoman Caliphate after World War I. The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
Main Objectives To support the Ottoman Caliphate, which was seen as the spiritual leader of Muslims worldwide. To protest against the repressive Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, and other oppressive British policies.

To demand self-governance and Swaraj (self-rule) for India.

Leadership Ali brothers: Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali were prominent leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi was the leader of the Non-Cooperation Movement, supported by the Indian National Congress and other nationalist leaders.
Nature of Protest Peaceful protests, demonstrations, and boycotts were organized against British authorities and their policies.

Muslims sought to unite with Hindus in the struggle against colonialism.

Non-violent resistance, civil disobedience, and non-cooperation with British institutions and goods.

Boycott of schools, colleges, and British-made products.

Outcome The Khilafat Movement weakened after the failure of the Khilafat Conference in 1924. The Non-Cooperation Movement gained significant momentum, mobilizing the masses and bringing national issues to the forefront.

It was temporarily suspended after the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922, where protesters turned violent, leading to Gandhi’s decision to halt the movement.

Impact on the Independence Movement The Khilafat Movement marked the cooperation between Hindus and Muslims in the independence struggle. However, it eventually lost momentum after the failure of the Khilafat Conference.

It laid the foundation for future Hindu-Muslim unity in the fight against colonialism.

The Non-Cooperation Movement provided a mass base for the independence movement and demonstrated the power of nonviolent resistance.

It showed the unity of Indians against British rule and inspired subsequent movements in the struggle for independence.

Both movements played a crucial role in shaping the course of India’s freedom struggle, fostering unity among different communities and emphasizing nonviolent resistance as a potent tool against colonial oppression.


What is Post-Non Cooperation Situation?

Here’s a summary of the post-Non Cooperation situation in the form of a table:

Aspect Details
Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922) Goal: Achieving Swaraj (self-rule) by demanding dominion status from the British government.

Methods: Boycotting British institutions and commodities, such as government schools, offices, courts, and foreign goods.

Results: Communal harmony among Hindus and Muslims, increased political awareness, and popularity of the Congress Party. The movement ended on February 4, 1922, after the Chauri Chaura incident.

Chauri Chaura Incident (1922) Details: Violent clash between protesters and police in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, during the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Aftermath: Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Non-Cooperation Movement as a response to the violence, realizing that the movement had lost its non-violent character. The incident led to a shift in the strategies employed by the Indian National Congress in the subsequent independence movements.

Aftermath of the Non-Cooperation Movement Impact: Although suspended, the Non-Cooperation Movement left a lasting impact on India’s freedom struggle. It increased political awareness, stirred nationalist sentiments, and demonstrated the strength of mass mobilization. The movement also highlighted the need for disciplined and nonviolent methods in the struggle for independence, shaping future strategies of the Indian National Congress.
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) Goal: Protesting against unjust laws, taxes, and the British salt monopoly.

Methods: Nonviolent resistance, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience against British authorities.

Outcome: Increased awareness, large-scale participation, and furthered the cause of independence. The movement was a significant step towards India’s eventual freedom from British rule.

Quit India Movement (1942) Goal: Demanding an immediate end to British rule and full independence for India.

Methods: Mass protests, strikes, and nonviolent resistance against British institutions.

Impact: Significantly intensified the independence movement, leading to widespread public unrest. Despite the harsh British response, the movement contributed to the eventual withdrawal of British colonial rule from India.

Eka Movement (1947) Details: The Eka Movement was a series of nonviolent protests in Kerala, India, led by the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India, demanding the merger of Thiruvithamkoor (Travancore) and Kochi (Cochin) states.

Outcome: The movement gained popular support, pressuring the princely states to accede to the Indian Union, and played a role in the integration of states into the newly independent India.

This table provides a comprehensive overview of the Non-Cooperation Movement, its aftermath, and subsequent independence movements, including the Chauri Chaura incident, the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Quit India Movement, and the Eka Movement in India’s struggle for independence from British rule.


Conclusion:

  • The First Mass Struggle in India, the Non-Cooperation Movement, was a defining moment in the country’s quest for independence. It awakened the political consciousness of the Indian masses, promoted communal harmony, and laid the foundation for future independence movements. Its legacy lives on as a testament to the power of nonviolent resistance, unity, and unwavering determination in the face of oppressive colonial rule. The movement marked a turning point in the history of India, leading to the eventual realization of its dream of self-rule and independence.

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