Biodiversity and its Conservation UPSC Notes PPT

Biodiversity and its Conservation UPSC Notes PPT

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  • Biodiversity, the variety of life on Earth, is a critical and multifaceted topic that holds significant importance in the UPSC Examinations. As the UPSC syllabus covers a wide range of subjects related to the environment, ecology, and conservation, understanding the nuances of biodiversity and its conservation becomes essential for aspirants.

Biodiversity and its Conservation UPSC notes – Lec 7

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Biodiversity and Its Conservation: Sustaining the Tapestry of Life

Biodiversity, a term derived from “biological diversity,” encompasses the variety of life on Earth, from the tiniest microorganisms to the largest mammals, and the ecosystems they form. This intricate web of life is a testament to the planet’s resilience and has been shaped over millions of years through the processes of evolution. However, the accelerating pace of human activities has posed unprecedented threats to biodiversity, making conservation efforts paramount to maintaining the delicate balance of our ecosystems.

Understanding Biodiversity

Biodiversity manifests in three essential levels:

  1. Genetic Diversity: The variety of genes within a species, allowing populations to adapt to changing environments and ensuring the survival of the species.
  2. Species Diversity: The variety of species within an ecosystem, from plants and animals to fungi and microorganisms. Each species plays a unique role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem.
  3. Ecosystem Diversity: The variety of habitats, communities, and ecological processes that occur at the landscape level. Ecosystems provide essential services such as clean air and water, pollination, and climate regulation.

The Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is not just a measure of the number of species; it is the foundation of life on Earth and contributes to various aspects of human well-being. Here are some key reasons why biodiversity is crucial:

  1. Ecological Stability: Biodiversity promotes resilience and stability in ecosystems, making them more adaptable to environmental changes and disturbances.
  2. Economic Value: Many industries, including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and tourism, rely on diverse biological resources. Biodiversity is a source of food, medicine, and raw materials.
  3. Cultural Significance: Biodiversity is intertwined with cultural practices, traditions, and identities. Many indigenous communities have deep connections to specific species and ecosystems.
  4. Ecosystem Services: Biodiverse ecosystems provide essential services like pollination of crops, water purification, and climate regulation, benefiting human societies.

Threats to Biodiversity

Despite its significance, biodiversity faces numerous threats, primarily driven by human activities. Some major threats include:

  1. Habitat Destruction: Urbanization, deforestation, and agricultural expansion result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats.
  2. Climate Change: Altered temperature and precipitation patterns, along with extreme weather events, disrupt ecosystems and impact the distribution of species.
  3. Pollution: Chemical pollutants, plastic waste, and other forms of pollution harm both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, affecting biodiversity.
  4. Overexploitation: Overharvesting of resources, overfishing, and poaching contribute to the decline of many species.

Conservation Strategies

Conservation efforts aim to mitigate the impact of these threats and preserve biodiversity for future generations. Key conservation strategies include:

  1. Protected Areas: Establishing and managing protected areas, such as national parks and reserves, to safeguard critical habitats.
  2. Sustainable Resource Management: Implementing practices that ensure the sustainable use of natural resources without compromising long-term ecological integrity.
  3. Community Involvement: Engaging local communities in conservation efforts to ensure sustainable practices and foster a sense of stewardship.
  4. Legislation and Policies: Enacting and enforcing laws and policies that regulate activities impacting biodiversity and promote conservation.
  5. Education and Awareness: Increasing public awareness about the importance of biodiversity and the need for conservation.

Success Stories in Biodiversity Conservation

Several success stories demonstrate the positive impact of conservation efforts. The recovery of the bald eagle, the resurgence of the gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park, and the conservation of the golden lion tamarin in Brazil highlight the effectiveness of targeted initiatives.

Conclusion:

  • Biodiversity is a treasure that sustains life on Earth, providing ecological, economic, and cultural benefits. As stewards of this planet, it is our responsibility to protect and conserve biodiversity. By embracing sustainable practices, supporting conservation initiatives, and fostering a deep appreciation for the diversity of life, we can contribute to the preservation of biodiversity and ensure a harmonious coexistence between humans and the natural world.

Biodiversity-and-its-conservation-upsc-notes-PPT
Biodiversity-and-its-conservation-upsc-notes-PPT

Biodiversity and its Conservation: A Comprehensive Overview

Biodiversity, the intricate dance of life on Earth, is a treasure trove of varied species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity. Its conservation is paramount to ensure the well-being of the planet and its inhabitants. In this article, we delve into the diverse realms of biodiversity, focusing on species conservation and the myriad challenges and initiatives that define this critical field.

Census of Asiatic Lion

The Asiatic Lion, an emblem of strength and resilience, faced the brink of extinction. Conservation efforts, including a meticulous census, have been crucial. These majestic creatures are now part of Species Recovery Programs, showcasing successful strides in their conservation.

Specie Recovery Program

The Specie Recovery Program encompasses a wide array of endangered species, from the Asian Wild Buffalo to the elusive Snow Leopard. These programs employ a multi-faceted approach, combining habitat protection, anti-poaching measures, and community involvement to revive dwindling populations.

Here’s a table with the Specie Recovery Program:

Species Recovery Program Example
1. Asian Wild Buffalo Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, anti-poaching measures, and community engagement. Example: Initiatives in Assam, India, to safeguard habitats and reduce human-wildlife conflict.
2. Asiatic Lion Recovery Program: Conservation efforts in Gir National Park, including habitat preservation and community involvement. Example: Successful reintroduction programs in the Gir Forest of Gujarat, India.
3. Brow-Antlered Deer or Sangai Recovery Program: Protection of Keibul Lamjao National Park, habitat restoration, and anti-poaching measures. Example: Conservation initiatives in Manipur, India, to save the Sangai from extinction.
4. Dugong Recovery Program: Coastal habitat protection, anti-poaching efforts, and community awareness programs. Example: Conservation projects in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, to safeguard dugong habitats.
5. Edible Nest Swiftlet Recovery Program: Sustainable harvesting practices, protection of nesting sites, and awareness programs. Example: Initiatives in Southeast Asia promoting sustainable bird nest harvesting.
6. Gangetic River Dolphin Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, reducing river pollution, and community engagement. Example: Conservation projects in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems.
7. Great Indian Bustard Recovery Program: Habitat preservation, anti-poaching measures, and collaboration with local communities. Example: Conservation efforts in the Thar Desert, India, to protect the great Indian bustard.
8. Hangul Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat restoration, anti-poaching measures, and community involvement. Example: Initiatives in Jammu and Kashmir, India, to safeguard the critically endangered Hangul deer.
9. Indian Rhino or Great One-horned Rhinoceros Recovery Program: Habitat protection, translocation efforts, and community conservation initiatives. Example: Success in Kaziranga National Park, India, in increasing Indian rhino populations.
10. Jerdon’s Courser Recovery Program: Protection of scrub habitats, anti-poaching measures, and research to understand and conserve the species. Example: Conservation initiatives in Andhra Pradesh, India, to save the Jerdon’s courser.
11. Malabar Civet Recovery Program: Protection of Western Ghats habitats, anti-poaching measures, and research for conservation strategies. Example: Conservation projects in Kerala, India, to protect the Malabar civet.
12. Marine Turtles Recovery Program: Coastal conservation, protection of nesting sites, and international collaboration for marine turtle conservation. Example: Global initiatives to protect marine turtles, such as the work of WWF and Sea Turtle Conservancy.
13. Nicobar Megapode Recovery Program: Habitat conservation, anti-poaching efforts, and research for understanding and preserving nesting sites. Example: Conservation projects in the Nicobar Islands, India, to protect the Nicobar megapode.
14. Nilgiri Tahr Recovery Program: Habitat restoration, anti-poaching measures, and community involvement in conservation efforts. Example: Conservation initiatives in the Nilgiri Hills, India, to save the Nilgiri tahr.
15. Snow Leopard Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, community engagement, and research for snow leopard conservation. Example: Global efforts, including projects in the Himalayan region, to protect the elusive snow leopard.
16. Swamp Deer Recovery Program: Habitat preservation, anti-poaching measures, and translocation efforts to ensure population recovery. Example: Initiatives in Assam, India, to save the swamp deer population.
17. Vultures Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, research on vulture health, and efforts to reduce toxic exposure. Example: Vulture conservation initiatives in South Asia to address the decline due to diclofenac use.
18. Northern River Terrapin Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, anti-poaching measures, and research on nesting behavior. Example: Initiatives in Southeast Asia to protect the Northern River Terrapin populations.
19. Clouded Leopard Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat preservation, anti-poaching efforts, and research on clouded leopard ecology. Example: Conservation projects in Southeast Asia to safeguard the clouded leopard.
20. Arabian Sea Humpback Whale Recovery Program: Conservation through measures to reduce ship strikes, mitigate noise pollution, and protect critical habitats. Example: Efforts in the Arabian Sea to protect the endangered population of humpback whales.
21. Red Panda Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat protection, community-based initiatives, and research on red panda ecology. Example: Conservation projects in the Himalayan region to safeguard the red panda.
22. Caracal Recovery Program: Conservation through habitat preservation, anti-poaching measures, and research on caracal behavior and ecology. Example: Initiatives in Africa and parts of Asia to protect and conserve the caracal.

These recovery programs showcase the diverse strategies employed to conserve and protect various species, highlighting the importance of collaborative efforts involving governments, local communities, and conservation organizations.


Critically Endangered Mammals

Here’s a table with the list of Critically Endangered Mammals:

Critically Endangered Mammals Scientific Name Example
1. Pygmy Hog Porcula salvania Example: Conservation efforts in Assam, India, focus on protecting Pygmy Hog habitats and breeding programs.
2. Andaman White-toothed Shrew Crocidura andamanensis Example: Conservation initiatives in the Andaman Islands to safeguard the habitat of the Andaman White-toothed Shrew.
3. Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew Crocidura jenkinsi Example: Research and conservation projects in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to understand and protect this species.
4. Nicobar White-tailed Shrew Crocidura nicobarica Example: Conservation efforts in the Nicobar Islands to mitigate threats and preserve the Nicobar White-tailed Shrew.
5. Kondana Rat Millardia kondana Example: Conservation programs in the Western Ghats, India, aimed at preserving the Kondana Rat population.
6. Elvira Rat or Large Rock Rat Cremnomys elvira Example: Conservation initiatives in rocky habitats, focusing on the Elvira Rat’s ecological needs and threats.
7. Namdapha Flying Squirrel Biswamoyopterus biswasi Example: Conservation projects in Namdapha National Park, India, to protect the habitat and ensure the survival of the species.
8. Malabar Civet Viverra civettina Example: Conservation efforts in the Western Ghats to safeguard the Malabar Civet, focusing on habitat conservation and anti-poaching measures.
9. Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Example: International collaborations to protect the Sumatran Rhinoceros, involving habitat conservation and captive breeding programs.
10. Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus Example: Conservation programs in Java, Indonesia, to save the Javan Rhinoceros through habitat protection and community engagement.

These critically endangered mammals highlight the urgent need for conservation efforts to prevent further population decline and potential extinction.


Critically Endangered Reptiles

Here’s a table with the list of Critically Endangered Reptiles:

Critically Endangered Reptiles Scientific Name Example
1. Gharial Gavialis gangeticus Example: Conservation initiatives in India to protect Gharial habitats and address threats to their survival.
2. Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Example: Global efforts to conserve Hawksbill Turtles, including measures to protect nesting sites and reduce threats from fishing activities.
3. Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea Example: International collaborations to safeguard Leatherback Turtles, focusing on habitat conservation and reducing human-induced threats.
4. Four-toed River Terrapin Batagur baska Example: Conservation programs in Southeast Asia to protect the Four-toed River Terrapin, involving habitat preservation and anti-poaching measures.
5. Red-crowned Roofed Turtle or Bengal Roof Turtle Batagur kachuga Example: Initiatives in Bangladesh and India to conserve the Red-crowned Roofed Turtle, including community engagement and habitat restoration projects.
6. Sispara Day Gecko Cnemaspis sisparensis Example: Conservation efforts in the Western Ghats, India, to protect the habitat and ensure the survival of the Sispara Day Gecko.

These critically endangered reptiles signify the vulnerability of certain species to various threats, emphasizing the need for dedicated conservation efforts to ensure their survival and ecological roles.


Critically Endangered Fish

Here’s a table with the list of Critically Endangered Fish:

Critically Endangered Fish Scientific Name Example
1. Pondicherry Shark Carcharhinus hemiodon Example: Conservation efforts in the Indian Ocean to protect the Pondicherry Shark and mitigate threats from fishing and habitat degradation.
2. Ganges Shark Glyphis gangeticus Example: Initiatives in the Ganges River basin to conserve the Ganges Shark, addressing threats such as habitat alteration and pollution.
3. Knife-Tooth Sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata Example: Global conservation projects focused on the Knife-Tooth Sawfish, emphasizing the importance of protecting coastal habitats and reducing accidental captures.
4. Large Tooth Sawfish Pristis microdon Example: Conservation programs in Australia and Southeast Asia to safeguard the Large Tooth Sawfish, involving habitat protection and research on its biology.
5. Long-comb Sawfish or Narrow-snout Sawfish Pristis zijsron Example: International collaborations to protect the Long-comb Sawfish, including measures to address overfishing and promote sustainable fishing practices.

These critically endangered fish highlight the urgent need for conservation actions to protect their habitats, regulate fishing practices, and address other threats contributing to their decline.


Endangered Corals and Critically Endangered Spiders

Here’s a table with the list of Critically Endangered Corals and Critically Endangered Spiders:

Critically Endangered Corals Scientific Name Example
1. Fire Corals Millepora boschmai Example: Conservation efforts in coral reef ecosystems to protect Fire Corals, including coral reef restoration projects and sustainable tourism practices.
Critically Endangered Spiders Scientific Name Example
1. Rameshwaram Ornamental Spider Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica Example: Conservation initiatives in the Western Ghats, India, to protect the Rameshwaram Ornamental Spider and its unique habitat.
2. Gooty Tarantula Poecilotheria Metallica Example: Conservation programs in India to preserve the Gooty Tarantula, involving habitat protection and public awareness about the species.

These critically endangered corals and spiders emphasize the importance of targeted conservation actions to protect these vulnerable species and their ecosystems.


Caracal: A New Addition

The elusive Caracal, a medium-sized wild cat, has recently joined the Species Recovery Program. This addition emphasizes the dynamic nature of conservation efforts, adapting to include new species as their populations face threats.


Red Panda: Guardians of the Himalayas

The charismatic Red Panda, with its distinctive appearance, symbolizes the fragile biodiversity of the Himalayas. Conservation initiatives aim to protect their habitats and address threats, ensuring the continued existence of this unique species.

Here’s the table for Red Panda with example values:

Attribute Value Example
Species Red Panda
Scientific Name Ailurus fulgens
Habitat Himalayan forests Red Pandas are primarily found in the temperate forests of the Himalayas.
Conservation Status Endangered The Red Panda is classified as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List.
Threats Habitat loss, Poaching Threats to Red Pandas include habitat fragmentation due to human activities and poaching for the illegal pet trade.
Conservation Actions Protected areas, Habitat restoration Conservation efforts include establishing protected areas and initiatives for habitat restoration to support Red Panda populations.

Golden Langur, Nilgiri Langur, and Lion-Tailed Macaque

These primates represent the rich diversity of langurs and macaques. Conservation efforts focus on preserving their habitats and addressing challenges such as habitat fragmentation and human-wildlife conflict.

Here’s a table for Golden Langur, Nilgiri Langur, and Lion-Tailed Macaque:

Attribute Value Example
Species Golden Langur, Nilgiri Langur, Lion-Tailed Macaque
Scientific Name Trachypithecus geei, Semnopithecus johnii, Macaca silenus
Habitat Golden Langur: Eastern Himalayas, Nilgiri Langur: Western Ghats, Lion-Tailed Macaque: Western Ghats Golden Langurs inhabit the tropical and subtropical forests of Bhutan and India. Nilgiri Langurs are found in the Western Ghats of India, and Lion-Tailed Macaques are also found in the Western Ghats.
Conservation Status Golden Langur: Endangered, Nilgiri Langur: Vulnerable, Lion-Tailed Macaque: Endangered The Golden Langur is classified as “Endangered,” the Nilgiri Langur as “Vulnerable,” and the Lion-Tailed Macaque as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List.
Threats Habitat loss, Fragmentation, Human-Wildlife Conflict Threats include deforestation, habitat fragmentation due to human activities, and conflicts with local communities.
Conservation Actions Protected areas, Community engagement, Habitat restoration Conservation efforts involve establishing and maintaining protected areas, engaging local communities in conservation initiatives, and restoring degraded habitats to support these primate species.

Deers, Fishing Cat, Crocodiles: Aquatic Ecosystem Guardians

From graceful deers to elusive Fishing Cats and ancient crocodiles, these species play crucial roles in aquatic ecosystems. Conservation programs aim to safeguard their habitats and ensure the health of aquatic environments.

Here’s a table for Deers, Fishing Cat, and Crocodiles as Aquatic Ecosystem Guardians:

Attribute Value Example
Species Deers, Fishing Cat, Crocodiles
Role as Guardians Aquatic Ecosystem Protectors These species play a crucial role in maintaining the health and balance of aquatic ecosystems.
Examples Deers: Sambar Deer, Fishing Cat: Prionailurus viverrinus, Crocodiles: Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) Sambar Deers contribute to seed dispersal and control vegetation in riparian zones. Fishing Cats play a role in controlling aquatic prey populations. Crocodiles help regulate fish populations and maintain ecosystem balance.
Conservation Status Varies for each species Sambar Deers: Least Concern, Fishing Cat: Vulnerable, Saltwater Crocodile: Least Concern (as per IUCN Red List).
Threats Habitat loss, Human-wildlife conflict Threats include habitat destruction, pollution, and conflicts with humans, emphasizing the need for conservation efforts.
Conservation Actions Protected areas, Habitat restoration, Community Education Conservation efforts involve creating and maintaining protected areas, restoring degraded habitats, and educating communities about coexisting with these species for the benefit of aquatic ecosystems.

Birds: Sky Dwellers in Peril

Numerous bird species, from the iconic Great Indian Bustard to the elusive Jerdon’s Courser, face critical endangerment. Conservationists strive to protect these avian wonders through habitat preservation and anti-poaching measures.

Here’s a table for Critically Endangered Birds:

Critically Endangered Birds Scientific Name Example
1. Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri Conservation efforts for Baer’s Pochard include habitat restoration and protection of wetland areas.
2. Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti The Forest Owlet, once thought to be extinct, has become a focus of intensive conservation efforts in its rediscovered range.
3. Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps Conservation actions for the Great Indian Bustard include habitat preservation in grasslands and community involvement.
4. Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis The Bengal Florican faces threats from habitat loss, and conservation efforts aim at protecting its grassland habitats.
5. Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus Conservation programs for the Siberian Crane focus on preserving their wetland habitats along their migratory routes.
6. Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Efforts to conserve the Spoon-billed Sandpiper include creating protected areas along its migration routes and addressing threats to its breeding grounds.
7. Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius Conservation initiatives for the Sociable Lapwing include habitat preservation in its breeding and migratory areas.
8. Jerdon’s Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus Conservation projects aim to protect the habitat of Jerdon’s Courser, a rare and elusive bird found in India.
9. White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis Conservation efforts for White-backed Vultures include addressing the impact of diclofenac use and establishing safe feeding sites.
10. Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus Conservation actions for the Red-headed Vulture involve captive breeding programs and efforts to reduce threats from diclofenac.
11. White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis The White-bellied Heron is the focus of conservation initiatives aiming to protect its riverine habitats in Southeast Asia.
12. Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris Conservation strategies for the Slender-billed Vulture include addressing threats from diclofenac and establishing vulture-safe zones.
13. Indian Vulture Gyps indicus Indian Vulture conservation efforts include captive breeding and the establishment of supplementary feeding programs.
14. Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa Conservation initiatives for the elusive Himalayan Quail focus on preserving its montane grassland habitats.
15. Pink-headed Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Although considered extinct, efforts continue to survey potential habitats and explore the possibility of rediscovering the Pink-headed Duck.

These critically endangered birds highlight the urgent need for comprehensive conservation measures to safeguard their habitats and address various threats they face.

Critically Endangered Birds from the State of World

Here’s a table for Critically Endangered Birds from the State of World Birds:

Critically Endangered Birds Scientific Name Example
1. White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis Conservation initiatives for the White-bellied Heron focus on preserving its riverine habitats in Southeast Asia.
2. Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri Conservation efforts for Baer’s Pochard include habitat restoration and protection of wetland areas.
3. Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Efforts to conserve the Spoon-billed Sandpiper include creating protected areas along its migration routes and addressing threats to its breeding grounds.
4. Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis The Bengal Florican faces threats from habitat loss, and conservation efforts aim at protecting its grassland habitats.
5. Bugun Liocichla Liocichla bugunorum Conservation projects for the Bugun Liocichla involve protecting its habitat in the Eastern Himalayas.
6. Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps Conservation actions for the Great Indian Bustard include habitat preservation in grasslands and community involvement.
7. Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa Conservation initiatives for the elusive Himalayan Quail focus on preserving its montane grassland habitats.
8. Jerdon’s Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus Conservation projects aim to protect the habitat of Jerdon’s Courser, a rare and elusive bird found in India.
9. Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius Conservation initiatives for the Sociable Lapwing include habitat preservation in its breeding and migratory areas.
10. Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola Efforts to conserve the Yellow-breasted Bunting focus on protecting its breeding grounds and addressing threats along its migration routes.
11. Vulture Species White-rumped, Indian, Slender-billed, Red-headed Conservation efforts for these vulture species include addressing the impact of diclofenac use, establishing safe feeding sites, and captive breeding programs.

These critically endangered birds emphasize the global importance of conservation efforts to protect avian biodiversity and address the various threats faced by these species.


Hornbill: Guardians of Forests

Hornbills, with their distinctive appearance and ecological roles, are essential for maintaining forest ecosystems. Conservation efforts focus on protecting their habitats and addressing threats such as habitat loss.

Butterflies, Locusts: Small Wonders in Jeopardy

The enchanting world of butterflies and the ecological role of locusts are integral to biodiversity. Conservation endeavors target these small wonders, recognizing their significance in the delicate balance of ecosystems.

Himalayan Yak: Hardy Mountain Dwellers

The Himalayan Yak, a symbol of resilience, faces challenges due to changing climates and human activities. Conservation initiatives strive to preserve their habitats and traditional roles in mountain communities.

Aquatic – Fish, Mahseer: Guardians of Waterways

Aquatic ecosystems, represented by diverse fish species and the iconic Mahseer, are vital for maintaining water health. Conservation measures focus on sustainable fishing practices and habitat protection.

State of World Birds: A Global Perspective

The State of World Birds highlights the challenges faced by various avian species globally. From critically endangered birds to those facing habitat loss, global initiatives aim to address these issues collectively.

Asian Waterbird Census, Flyways, and Wetland Sanctuaries

Wetlands, crucial for waterbirds, are under threat. Initiatives like the Asian Waterbird Census and the conservation of flyways emphasize the need to protect these vital ecosystems.

Corals and Critically Endangered Spiders: Underwater Marvels and Tiny Wonders

From critically endangered corals to unique spiders, the underwater and terrestrial realms face threats. Conservation efforts aim to protect marine ecosystems and rare terrestrial arachnids.

Aquatic Species: Turtles, Dolphins, and Fish

Aquatic species, including sea turtles, dolphins, and critically endangered fish, highlight the challenges faced by marine ecosystems. Conservation programs focus on sustainable fishing practices and habitat protection.

Hybodont Shark and Wolbachia Mosquito: Ancient and Tiny Threats

The Hybodont Shark, an ancient marine species, and the Wolbachia Mosquito, a tiny but impactful insect, showcase the diversity of threats to biodiversity. Conservation strategies adapt to address both ancient and emerging challenges.

Also Read: Free PPT Slides

Tables

Here are tables for each heading with example information:

Bugun Liocichla

Attribute Value Example
Species Bugun Liocichla
Scientific Name Liocichla bugunorum
Habitat Eastern Himalayas Bugun Liocichla inhabits the dense forests of the Eastern Himalayas.
Conservation Status Endangered Conservation efforts focus on habitat protection and community involvement.

Light Mantled Albatross

Attribute Value Example
Species Light Mantled Albatross
Scientific Name Phoebetria palpebrata
Habitat Southern Ocean Light Mantled Albatross roams the Southern Ocean, often near Antarctica.
Conservation Status Near Threatened Conservation efforts target threats from longline fishing and nesting site preservation.

Great Indian Bustard

Attribute Value Example
Species Great Indian Bustard
Scientific Name Ardeotis nigriceps
Habitat Grasslands of India Great Indian Bustard thrives in the grasslands of India, facing threats from habitat loss.
Conservation Status Critically Endangered Conservation actions involve habitat preservation and community engagement.

Jerdon Courser

Attribute Value Example
Species Jerdon Courser
Scientific Name Rhinoptilus bitorquatus
Habitat Scrub and Grasslands in AP, India Jerdon Courser is found in the scrub and grasslands of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Conservation Status Critically Endangered Conservation efforts focus on protecting its habitat and preventing further decline.

Vultures

Attribute Value Example
Group Vultures
Species Examples White-rumped, Indian, Slender-billed, Red-headed Various vulture species facing threats due to diclofenac use and habitat loss.
Conservation Status Varies Conservation efforts include captive breeding and diclofenac awareness campaigns.

Asian Waterbird Census

Attribute Value Example
Census Event Asian Waterbird Census
Purpose Monitoring waterbird populations The census aims to track the abundance and distribution of waterbirds in the Asian region.
Locations Multiple Asian countries Various wetlands and water bodies are surveyed during the census.

Flyways

Attribute Value Example
Concept Flyways
Explanation Migration routes for birds Flyways represent the paths birds take during migration between breeding and non-breeding grounds.
Importance Conservation planning Understanding flyways is crucial for implementing effective conservation measures for migratory birds.

Pulicat Lake and Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary

Attribute Value Example
Location Pulicat Lake and Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary
Significance Important Bird Area (IBA) Pulicat Lake and Nelapattu are crucial habitats for migratory birds and are designated as Important Bird Areas.
Species Various migratory birds The sanctuary hosts a diverse range of bird species during migratory seasons.

Hornbill

Attribute Value Example
Species Hornbill
Examples Indian Grey Hornbill, Great Hornbill Hornbills are known for their distinctive bills and play important roles in seed dispersal.
Habitat Tropical and subtropical forests Hornbills inhabit dense forests, contributing to forest ecology.

Three AP species in race to become National butterfly

Attribute Value Example
Species Butterflies
Contenders Southern Birdwing, Krishna Peacock, Crimson Rose Three butterfly species from Andhra Pradesh competing for national recognition.
Habitat Varied ecosystems of Andhra Pradesh These butterflies thrive in diverse habitats, showcasing the state’s biodiversity.

Kaiser i Hind

Attribute Value Example
Butterfly Species Kaiser-i-Hind
Scientific Name Teinopalpus imperialis The Kaiser-i-Hind is a rare and iconic butterfly species found in the eastern Himalayas.
Status Near Threatened Conservation efforts focus on preserving its high-altitude forest habitats.

Monarch Butterfly

Attribute Value Example
Species Monarch Butterfly
Scientific Name Danaus plexippus Known for long migrations, Monarch Butterflies are iconic in North America.
Migration Annual long-distance migration Monarchs travel thousands of kilometers between North America and Mexico.

Locusts

Attribute Value Example
Group Locusts
Examples Desert Locust, Migratory Locust Locusts can form swarms, causing significant agricultural damage during outbreaks.
Behavior Solitary and swarming phases Locusts switch between solitary and swarming phases, impacting their behavior and impact on crops.

Dragonflies

Attribute Value Example
Insects Dragonflies
Features Transparent wings, agile flight Dragonflies are known for their excellent flying abilities and unique wing structure.
Habitat Aquatic ecosystems Dragonflies are commonly found near water bodies during their larval and adult stages.

Colony Collapse Disorder

Attribute Value Example
Phenomenon Colony Collapse Disorder
Impact The decline in bee populations worldwide This phenomenon affects honeybee colonies, posing risks to pollination and agriculture.
Causes Pesticides, pathogens, habitat loss Multiple factors contribute to Colony Collapse Disorder, making it a complex issue to address.

Himalayan Yak

Attribute Value Example
Species Himalayan Yak
Use Livestock, transport Himalayan Yaks are adapted to high-altitude environments, providing essential resources for local communities.
Conservation Vulnerable Conservation efforts aim to sustain yak populations and their role in Himalayan ecosystems.

Wolbachia Mosquito

Attribute Value Example
Insect Wolbachia Mosquito
Control Method Population suppression Introducing Wolbachia into mosquito populations helps control the spread of certain diseases like dengue.
Research Vector control Ongoing studies explore the effectiveness and ecological impacts of Wolbachia-based mosquito control.

Tardigrade

Attribute Value Example
Microscopic Animal Tardigrade
Features Resilience, microscopic size Tardigrades are known for their ability to survive extreme conditions, including space travel.
Habitat Various environments Tardigrades are found in diverse habitats, from deep-sea trenches to the highest mountain ranges.

Banni Buffalo and Manda Buffalo

Attribute Value Example
Buffalo Species Banni Buffalo, Manda Buffalo
Location Banni Grassland, Kutch, India These buffalo species are indigenous to the Banni region in Kutch, known for their adaptation to arid environments.
Significance Livestock and cultural importance Banni and Manda Buffaloes play vital roles in the livelihoods and cultural practices of local communities.

Aquatic

Attribute Value Example
Ecosystem Type Aquatic
Examples Rivers, Lakes, Oceans, Wetlands Aquatic ecosystems encompass various water bodies, supporting diverse flora and fauna adapted to life in water.
Importance Biodiversity, water resource Aquatic ecosystems are crucial for supporting biodiversity, maintaining water quality, and providing resources for human use.

Planktons

Attribute Value Example
Organisms Plankton
Types Phytoplankton, Zooplankton Planktons are microscopic organisms drifting in water, including photosynthetic phytoplankton and small animal-like zooplankton.
Role The foundation of aquatic food chains Planktons form the base of aquatic food chains, providing essential nutrients for larger organisms.

Dolphin

Attribute Value Example
Species Dolphin
Examples Bottlenose Dolphin, River Dolphin Dolphins are marine mammals found in oceans and freshwater rivers, known for their intelligence and playful behavior.
Conservation Status Varies Conservation efforts focus on protecting various dolphin species, addressing threats like habitat loss and human activities.

Mahseer

Attribute Value Example
Fish Species Mahseer
Examples Golden Mahseer, Tor Mahseer Mahseer species are large freshwater fish found in rivers and lakes, known for their recreational value and cultural significance.
Conservation Status Varies Conservation initiatives aim to preserve Mahseer populations, addressing challenges like overfishing and habitat degradation.

Turtle

Attribute Value Example
Reptile Species Turtle
Examples Olive Ridley Turtle, Leatherback Turtle Turtles are reptiles with protective shells, and Olive Ridley Turtles, in particular, are known for their mass nesting events.
Conservation Status Varies Turtle conservation involves protecting nesting sites, reducing bycatch, and addressing threats like plastic pollution.

Olive Ridley

Attribute Value Example
Turtle Species Olive Ridley Turtle
Scientific Name Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtles are named for their olive-colored shells and are known for synchronized nesting events, known as arribadas.
Conservation Status Vulnerable Conservation efforts focus on protecting nesting sites and reducing threats from fisheries and habitat degradation.

SEA TURTLES

Attribute Value Example
Group Sea Turtles
Examples Green Turtle, Loggerhead Turtle Sea Turtles are marine reptiles found in oceans and play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, such as maintaining balance in marine food webs.
Conservation Status Varies Different species of sea turtles have varying conservation statuses, with some being endangered or critically endangered. Conservation efforts focus on protecting nesting sites and reducing threats.

Dugong

Attribute Value Example
Marine Mammal Dugong
Scientific Name Dugong dugon Dugongs, also known as sea cows, are herbivorous marine mammals found in shallow coastal waters. They are related to manatees and are listed as vulnerable due to threats like habitat loss and hunting.
Habitat Coastal waters Dugongs primarily inhabit seagrass meadows, relying on these habitats for feeding.

Seagrasses and Kelps

Attribute Value Example
Marine Plants Seagrasses and Kelps
Examples Zostera, Posidonia (Seagrasses), Macrocystis, Laminaria (Kelps) Seagrasses and kelps are marine plants that provide habitat, food, and oxygen for various marine species. They are vital components of coastal ecosystems.
Importance Coastal stabilization, Biodiversity support Seagrasses help prevent coastal erosion, while kelps provide habitat for diverse marine life.

Seagrass

Attribute Value Example
Marine Plant Seagrass
Examples Posidonia, Zostera Seagrasses are flowering plants adapted to live in marine environments. They form underwater meadows and provide important ecosystem services, including habitat for marine organisms.
Role Biodiversity support, Coastal stabilization Seagrasses support various marine species and contribute to the health of coastal ecosystems.

Sea Cucumber

Attribute Value Example
Marine Invertebrate Sea Cucumber
Examples Holothuria, Actinopyga Sea cucumbers are echinoderms found on the ocean floor. They play a role in nutrient recycling and are harvested for various purposes, including traditional medicine and culinary use.
Ecological Role Detritivores, Sediment nutrient recycling Sea cucumbers contribute to maintaining the health of marine ecosystems by recycling organic matter.

Difference between Seaweeds and Seagrass

Attribute Value Example
Marine Plants Seaweeds and Seagrass
Differences Seaweeds are multicellular algae without true roots, stems, or leaves. Seagrasses are flowering plants adapted to underwater life with true roots, stems, and leaves. While seaweeds and seagrasses are both marine plants, they differ in their taxonomic classification, structure, and reproductive strategies.

Hybodont Shark

Attribute Value Example
Shark Species Hybodont Shark
Fossil Record Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Hybodont sharks were a diverse group of sharks that existed from the Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras. They had a wide range of ecological adaptations and are now extinct.
Characteristics Multiple fin types, Diverse dentition Hybodont sharks displayed various fin shapes and tooth structures, indicating their adaptability to different environments.

In conclusion,

  • Biodiversity conservation is a dynamic and interconnected effort that requires global collaboration and awareness. From the iconic Asiatic Lion to the microscopic Wolbachia Mosquito, each species plays a unique role in the intricate tapestry of life. It is our collective responsibility to safeguard these species, their habitats, and the delicate balance of ecosystems for the well-being of present and future generations.

Previous Lecture: Species Conservation UPSC Notes PPT

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