Indian Schools of Philosophy PPT Download

Indian Schools of Philosophy PPT Download

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  • India has been a cradle of diverse philosophical traditions, each offering unique perspectives on existence, morality, and the nature of reality. These schools of thought, rooted in ancient texts and the intellectual traditions of the Indian subcontinent, have played a significant role in shaping the country’s cultural and spiritual landscape. In this article, we explore some of the prominent Indian schools of philosophy that have flourished over the centuries.

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Exploring the Rich Tapestry of Indian Schools of Philosophy

India has been the cradle of diverse philosophical traditions that have flourished over thousands of years. The Indian subcontinent has been home to a multitude of philosophical schools, each offering unique perspectives on life, existence, and the nature of reality. These schools, collectively known as “darshanas,” have played a crucial role in shaping the intellectual and spiritual landscape of the region. In this article, we will delve into some prominent Indian schools of philosophy, each with its distinctive approach to understanding the world.

  1. Nyaya – The School of Logic: Nyaya, one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy, is characterized by its emphasis on logical reasoning and analysis. Founded by sage Gautama, Nyaya explores the nature of knowledge (epistemology) and the principles of valid inference. The Nyaya Sutras provide a systematic exposition of its doctrines, and the school has contributed significantly to Indian debates on logic and debate methodologies.
  2. Vaisheshika – The Atomistic School: Founded by sage Kanada, Vaisheshika delves into the nature of the physical world and the concept of atoms (anu). It posits that the universe is composed of discrete, indivisible particles and explores the interplay of these atoms to explain the diversity of existence. Vaisheshika and Nyaya are often studied together, as they share common ground on epistemology and logic.
  3. Samkhya – The Enumeration School: Attributed to the sage Kapila, Samkhya is one of the oldest philosophical systems in India. It provides a detailed analysis of the components of the material world and explores the relationship between the eternal principles of Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (matter). Samkhya is foundational to the development of yoga, and its concepts have influenced various streams of Hindu thought.
  4. Yoga – The Path to Liberation: Although often associated with physical postures and exercises in the modern world, Yoga, as a philosophical system, is rooted in the ancient Indian traditions. Sage Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras outline the path to spiritual realization through ethical and mental discipline. The eight limbs of yoga include moral precepts, physical postures, breath control, and meditation, aiming to achieve a state of self-realization and union with the divine.
  5. Mimamsa – The School of Rituals: Mimamsa, founded by sage Jaimini, focuses on the interpretation of Vedic rituals and sacrificial ceremonies. It emphasizes the importance of proper ritual performance as prescribed in the Vedas and debates the nature of dharma (duty/righteousness). Mimamsa contributed significantly to the development of Hindu orthopraxy and scriptural hermeneutics.
  6. Vedanta – The End of the Vedas: Vedanta represents the culmination of Vedic thought and is often considered the most influential of all Indian philosophical schools. It interprets the Upanishads, the culmination of Vedic literature, and explores the nature of ultimate reality (Brahman) and the individual soul (Atman). Vedanta encompasses various sub-schools, including Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism), and Dvaita (dualism), offering diverse perspectives on the relationship between the individual and the cosmic reality.


  • The Indian schools of philosophy form a rich tapestry that reflects the intellectual curiosity and spiritual inquiry of the ancient sages. While these schools may differ in their foundational principles and approaches, they collectively contribute to the philosophical heritage of India, fostering a tradition of contemplation, debate, and the relentless pursuit of truth.

Indian Philosophical Schools: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy Unveiled

Here’s the information organized in Table:

Orthodox Schools:

School Goals Key Texts, Distinctive Features
Vedanta Moksha Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, Bhagavad Gita; Non-dualism (Advaita), Dualism (Dvaita), Qualified Non-dualism (Vishishtadvaita)
Samkhya Kaivalya Samkhya Karika; Enumeration of fundamental principles, dualistic worldview
Yoga Moksha Yoga Sutras of Patanjali; Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga
Nyaya Dharma, Moksha Nyaya Sutras; Logical reasoning, epistemology
Vaisheshika Dharma, Moksha Vaisheshika Sutras; Atomistic theory, theory of categories
Mimamsa Dharma Purva Mimamsa Sutras; Focus on rituals and religious duties

Heterodox Schools:

School Goals Key Texts, Distinctive Features
Buddhism Nirvana Tripitaka; Theravada, Mahayana, Vajrayana; Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path
Jainism Moksha Jain Agamas, Tattvartha Sutra; Non-violence (Ahimsa), emphasis on ascetic practices
Charvaka Materialistic pursuits Charvaka Sutras (Not extant); Radical materialism, rejection of the supernatural
Ajivika Niyati (Determinism) Scarce, influenced by Jainism and Buddhism; Fatalism, denial of free will

This layout ensures a clear presentation of the information with three distinct columns: School, Goals, and Key Texts/Distinctive Features.

Table of Indian Schools of Philosophy: Goals and Tenets

Here’s a complete table summarizing the Indian schools of philosophy along with their goals and categorization:

School of Philosophy Goals Key Tenets/Features
1. Sankhya 1. Artha Dualism: Purusha and Prakriti
2. Yoga 2. Dharma Eightfold Path
3. Nyaya 3. Kama Logic and epistemology
4. Vaisheshika 4. Moksha Atomistic metaphysics
5. Mimansa Ritual exegesis of Vedas
6. Vedanta Brahman-Atman unity, Upanishadic
1. Buddhism 1. Dukkha Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path
2. Jainism 2. Dharma Ahimsa, Anekantavada, Syadvada
3. Charvaka 3. Кama Materialism, rejection of the afterlife
4. Ajivika 4. Moksha Determinism, no self-control

Note: The goals mentioned in the table are the classical goals of life (Purusharthas) in Hindu philosophy:

  1. Artha (material prosperity)
  2. Dharma (righteous duty)
  3. Kama (pleasure)
  4. Moksha (liberation)

Each school of philosophy has its own interpretation and approach towards these goals.

Philosophical Perspectives: Ancient Thinkers, Dualism, and Scientific Spirituality

Here’s a complete table:

Category School Perspective/Characteristics
Oldest Kapila Muni Original – God not considered necessary
SANKHYA SCHOOL New – God created the universe
Scientific – Emphasis on empirical knowledge
Universe – Views on the creation of the universe
Spirituality – Focus on spiritual understanding
Materialistic – Primarily concerned with material aspects
Salvation – Liberation from the material world
1. Pratyaksha – Direct perception as a valid source
2. Anumana – Inference as a means of knowledge
3. Shabda – Verbal testimony as a source
DVAITAVADA Dualistic philosophy – 1. Purush (The eternal individual soul)
2. Prakriti (The eternal primal matter)

Note: The table summarizes the information provided, highlighting the key aspects of each category and school of thought.

Exploring Yogic Philosophy: Ashtanga Yoga, Patanjali’s Yogasutra, and Kundalini Awakening

Here’s a complete table:

School Sub-School/Method Philosophical Concepts
YOGA SCHOOL Ashtanga Yoga Dualism –

1. Body

2. Mind

Patanjali – Yogasutra 1. Yama – Moral disciplines
2. Niyama – Observances
3. Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses
4. Dharna – Concentration
5. Dhyana – Meditation
6. Samadhi – State of meditative absorption
7. Asana – Physical postures
8. Pranayama – Control of breath
Kundalini Jagran – Awakening of the dormant spiritual energy

Note: The table summarizes the information provided, highlighting the key components of the Yoga school, Patanjali’s Yogasutra, and the concept of Kundalini Jagran.

Also Read: India Journalism

Philosophical Insights: Gautama’s Nyaya School and the Art of Reasoning

Here’s the information:

Philosophical Aspect Philosopher Key Concepts
Reasoning/Logical Thinking Gautama – NYAYA SCHOOL
– 4 Pramana:
1. Pratyaksha (Perception)
2. Anumana (Inference)
3. Upamana (Comparison)
4. Shabda (Verbal testimony)
– Theory of Causation


Here’s a complete informative table:

Philosophical School Philosopher Key Concepts
VAISHESHIKA SCHOOL Kanada Reality is the world
5 Main Elements:
1. Air
2. Water
3. Fire
4. Earth
5. Sky
1. God
2. Karma

This table provides an overview of the Vaisheshika school, its philosopher (Kanada), and the key concepts, including the belief in God and the elements that constitute reality.

Philosophical Explorations: Mimansa and Vedanta Schools and Their Sub-Schools

Here’s the information:

Philosophical School Sub-school Key Concepts and Figures
MIMANSA SCHOOL Purva Mimansa Emphasis on Vedas
Reasoning, Interpretation, and Application
Key Figure: Jaimini
VEDANTA SCHOOL Uttar Mimansa Theory of Karma
Advaita Knowledge of Self (Aham Brahmasmi)
Key Figure: Shankaracharya
Vishishtadvaita The qualified non-dualism
Key Figure: Ramanujacharya
Dvaita Theistic dualism
Key Figure: Madhawacharya


Buddhism Unveiled: Life, Teachings, and Enlightenment of Gautam Buddha

Here’s a complete informative table:

Aspect Details
Founder Gautam Buddha
Birth 563 BC
Place Lumbini, Nepal
Father Sudodhana
Mother Mahamayadevi
Varna Kshatriya
Clan Shakya
Principality Kapilavastu
Wife Yashodhara
Son Rahul
Four Signs 1. Old man
2. Sick man
3. Dead body
4. Monk
Key Events in Buddha’s Life Mahabhinishkraman (Great Renunciation)
29 Years – Parivrajak (Wandering Ascetic)
Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree
Preaching of the 8-Fold Path
First Sermon – Dhammachakrapravartana
Mahaparinirvana at the age of 80 (483 BC)
8-Fold Path 1. Right View
2. Right Intention
3. Right Speech
4. Right Action
5. Right Livelihood
6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Concentration
Teaching Locations Alara Kalam (Sankhya)
Uruvella (Niranjana River)
Deer Park, Isipatana (First Sermon)
Nirvana Attained after 49 days of meditation
Dhammachakrapravartana (Turning the Wheel of Dharma)
Magga (The Path) Arya Satya (Noble Truths)
Dukkha (Suffering)
Samudaya (Cause of Suffering)
Nirodha (Cessation of Suffering)
Magga (Path leading to the Cessation)

This table provides a comprehensive overview of the key aspects related to the life, teachings, and events in the life of Gautam Buddha and Buddhism.

Buddhist Councils: Evolution of Doctrine and Philosophy

Here’s the information:

Council Year Location
1st Council 483 BC
2nd Council 383 BC
3rd Council 250 BC Pataliputra
4th Council 78 AD Kundalvana, Kashmir
Key Figures Canonical Texts Philosophical Characteristics
Rajgriha, Ajatasatru, Mahakashyap Suttapitaka (Teachings of Buddha), Divided into schools: Theravada, Mahasanghika, and others, Various Nikayas (collections of discourses)
Vaishali, Kalashok, Sabakami Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, Khuddaka Nikaya, Vinayapitaka (part of the Pali Canon), Metaphysical thoughts on the universe
Pataliputra, Ashoka, Mogaliputta Tissa Theravada is considered original, Abhidhammapitaka, Lesser vehicle, Orthodox, No idol worship, Pali Canon
Kundalvana, Kashmir, Kanishka, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha Mahavibhasa (Commentary on Vinaya), Hinayana, Mahayana, Greater vehicle, Liberal, Idol worship, Sanskrit Canon, Various schools (Sautantrika, Sammittiya, etc.)

Buddhist Legacy: Literary Sources, Sacred Journeys, and Kingdom Associations

Here’s the information:

Literary Sources Places Visited by Buddha Kingdoms Associated with Buddha
Ceylonese Chronicles: Mahavamsa, Dipavamsa, Attakatha; Tibetan Chronicles: Divyavandana, Kalachakra; Milindapanho Sarnath, Varanasi, Rajagriha, Vaishali, Sravasti, Pawapuri, Kushinagar Kosala, Magadha, Vaishali, Champa, Kaushambi, Susumargiri, Vali
Trisiksha, Tripitaka (Three Baskets): Vinaya (Morality), Sutta (Meditation), Abhidhamma (Wisdom) Cities: Sarnath, Varanasi, Rajagriha, Vaishali, Sravasti, Pawapuri, Kushinagar Not specified in the provided information
Sarnath, Varanasi, Rajagriha, Vaishali, Sravasti, Pawapuri, Kushinagar Monastic Centers: Sarnath, Rajagriha, Vaishali, Sravasti; Places of Enlightenment: Bodh Gaya, Sarnath Kingdoms: Kosala, Magadha, Vaishali, Champa, Kaushambi, Susumargiri, Vali
Kosala, Magadha, Vaishali, Champa, Kaushambi, Susumargiri, Vali Other Places: Kapilavastu, Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Shravasti, Jetavana, Nalanda; Final Resting Place: Kusinara Not specified in the provided information
Jataka Tales, Nidankatha (1st connected Buddha story) Sacred Places: Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar Not specified in the provided information

Buddhism’s Icons and Influencers: Events, Symbols, and Noteworthy Monks

Here’s a complete informative table:

Event Symbol
Avakranti White elephant
Jati Lotus, Bull
Mahabhinishkramana Horse
Nirvana Stupa, Bodhi tree
Sambodhi Bodhi tree
Dharmachakrapravartana Wheel
Mahaparinirvana Stupa
Important Monks Roles/Contributions
Ananda Attendant, Treasurer of Dhamma
Sariputra 1st of the Buddha’s 2 chief male disciples
Nagarjuna Madhyamika school, Theory of Sunyavad, Mulamadhyamakakarika
Mahakassapa President – 1st Council
Aniruddha Right Mindfulness
Moggaliputta Tissa Dhamma campaign
Asvaghosha Wrote Buddhacharita, Sariputra Prakarna
Buddhaghosha Wrote Visuddimagga
Dharmakirti Contributed to the Buddhist logic, known as the Kant of India

This table provides an overview of various events, symbols associated with Buddhism, and notable contributions or roles of important monks in the history of Buddhism.

Bodhisattvas in Buddhism: Symbols, Attributes, and Spiritual Roles

Here’s a complete informative table:

Bodhisattva Attributes/Associations
Maitreya Future Buddha
Laughing Buddha
Associated with Amitabha and the Lotus Sutra
Ajitaboddhisatva Symbolized by the Thunderbolt
Associated with the Ajanta Caves
Va Trapani Amitabha Represented as the Buddha of Heaven
Avalokiteshvara Universal Bodhisattva
Also known as Padmapani
Kind-hearted and associated with meditation
Samantabhadra Universal Bodhisattva
Sadaparibhuta Embodies the never-disparaging spirit
Kshitigarbha Guardian of children
Manjushri Embodies understanding and Buddha’s knowledge
Akasagarbha Embodies wisdom

This table provides an overview of various Bodhisattvas along with their attributes and associations in Buddhist tradition.

Buddhist Traditions Unveiled: Mahayana, Hinayana, and Vajrayana Paths

Here’s the table:

Major Schools of Buddhism Mahayana Hinayana (Theravada & Sarvastivada)
Salvation Buddha, Bodhisattva Individual salvation
Origin Northern India, Kashmir Sri Lanka
Spread Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka
Language Sanskrit Pali
Sub-schools Yogachara, Madhyamika Sarvastivada, Theravadin, Sautantrika
Main Tenet Great Vehicle Lesser Vehicle
Monastic Focus Boddhisattva-focused Arhat-focused
Sites Thotlakonda Buddhist Site in Andhra Pradesh, India
Prominent Figures
Major Schools of Buddhism Vajrayana
Salvation Magical powers, enlightened being
Origin Developed in India (circa 900 CE)
Spread Eastern India: Bengal, Bihar; Tibet
Language Sanskrit
Main Tenet Vehicle of Thunderbolt
Monastic Focus Emphasis on magical practices
Prominent Figures Padmasambhava in Tibet

Buddhist Terminology Unveiled: Insights into Monastic Practices and Spiritual Concepts

Here’s a complete informative table based on the provided information:

Important Terms Meaning/Description
PARIVRAJAKA Ritual of ascetic vetting or wandering mendicancy
UPASAMPADA Monastic ordination process
ARHAT One who has attained enlightenment and liberation
AGRAHARIKA A monk who is permitted to eat afternoon
POSADHA Buddhist day of observance, assembly at the end of Vassa
NIRVANA Liberation from the cycle of rebirth and suffering
Restoration of vows Ritual to restore monastic vows
Renunciant One who has renounced worldly life
UPASIKA Laywoman or female lay follower
Lands The areas or territories where Buddhism is practiced
Lay Follower A follower of Buddhism who is not a monastic
Supreme Bliss Ultimate happiness or enlightenment
PARAMITAS Perfections, virtues cultivated on the path to enlightenment
ANATMAN Denial of belief in an eternal, unchanging self
SRAMANA A wandering ascetic or seeker of truth
SHEEL Moral conduct, ethical behavior
Perfection Attainment of the highest qualities and virtues
Denial of belief in The rejection of the concept of an eternal, unchanging self
Seeker One who is on a quest for spiritual truth and understanding
Layperson leaves home A decision by a layperson to follow a monastic lifestyle
PAVARANA Ritual of inviting criticism and feedback among monks
Assembly at the end of Vassa Gathering of the monastic community at the end of the rainy season retreat
UPOSTHA Buddhist Day of Observance, a time for reflection and restraint
VASSA The three-month annual retreat observed by monastics

This table provides an overview of various important terms in Buddhism along with their meanings or descriptions.

Jainism: Tirthankaras, Councils, and Metaphysical Insights

Here’s the table:

Tirthankaras, Birth Details, Renunciation, Key Events, Teachings/Philosophy

Tirthankaras Birth Details Renunciation, Key Events Teachings/Philosophy
1st Rishabnath Born: Kundagram, Vaishali Left home at 30, Kevalya attained Jina (Victor), Right Knowledge
23rd Parsvnath @ age 40
24th Mahavira Born: Kundagram, Vaishali Left home at 30, Jina attained Ahimsa, Satya, Asatya, Aparigraha, Brahmacharya (Five Doctrines), Triratna (Right Knowledge, Right Action, Right Belief)

Jainism, Historical Events, Doctrines and Teachings

Jainism Historical Events Doctrines and Teachings
1st Jain Council (299 BCE) Location: Pataliputra, Attendees: Bindusara, Chandragupta Maurya, Sthulbhadra
2nd Jain Council (512 AD) Location: Valabhi, Gujarat, Attendees: Chalukyan rulers, Devardhi Ksema Shramana, Jain literature Canonical Texts: Anga, Upanga, Prakirna, Chedab Sutra, Mulsutra, Bhagwati Sutra

Metaphysical Thoughts

Metaphysical Thoughts Universe, Vedas, God, Rebirth
Universe: Jain cosmology describes the universe with six eternal substances (dravyas), Vedas: Not considered authoritative, God: Multiple gods but not a creator, Rebirth: Fundamental belief in the cycle of birth and death

Jain Sects Unveiled: Digambar and Swetambar Perspectives

Here’s the information presented in a complete informative table:

Jain Sects, Vows, Angas, Major and Minor Subsects

Jain Sects Digambar Swetambar
Vows Follow all 5 vows Follow 4 vows (except Brahmacharya)
Angas Rejected 12 Angas Accepted Angas
Views on Women Women can’t achieve salvation Women can achieve salvation
Major Subsects 1. Mula Sangha: Acharya Kundakunda

2. Bisapantha: Support Dharma gurus + idol worship

3. Kashtha Sangha: Lohacharya; Agrawal Jains

4. Samaiyapantha: Amra Bhaunsa Godika; Jodhraj Godika

1. Sthanakvasi: Lavaji; Oppose idol worship

2. Murtipujaka: Tirthankaras idol worship

3. Terapanth: Acharya Bhikshu; 13 religious principles

Minor Subsects 1. Gumanapantha: Ft Gumani Rama; Prohibit lighting of candles in Jain temples

2. Totapantha: Bispanthi Terapanthi

This table provides an overview of the key differences between Digambar and Swetambar sects in Jainism, including their views on vows, Angas, the role of women, and major/minor subsects.

Exploring Jainism: Key Terms and Canonical Literature

Here’s the information presented in a table:

Jainism Terms and Jain Literature

Jainism Terms Meaning/Description
ASRAV Inflow of karma
SAMVARA Stoppage of an influx of material karmas
NIRJARA Removal of accumulated karmas
SALLEKHANA Voluntary fasting to death, also known as Santhara
KAIVALYA Keval Jnana (Supreme Knowledge), ultimate liberation
Adinath First Tirthankara in Jain tradition
Jain Literature Description
Jain Agamas Canonical texts in Prakrit, including

1. Agmas

2. Mulasutra

3. Upangas

4. Prakirnaka sutra

5. Chedasutra

6. Ulikasutra

Kalpasutra Authored by Bhadrabahu, includes biographies
Non-Agam Literature Explanation of Agam literature, available in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsa, etc.
14 Purvas Knowledge of the universe
Mulasutra, Acharanga Sutra Jain scriptures provide guidelines for monastic life

This table provides an overview of important terms in Jainism and key aspects of Jain literature, including Agamas, Kalpasutra, non-Agam literature, and specific texts like Mulasutra and Acharanga Sutra.

Comparative Overview of Indian Philosophical Schools: Charvaka/Lokayata and Ajivika

Here’s the information presented in a table:

Philosophical School Key Figures Associated Texts, Philosophical Perspective, Relation to Buddhism
Charvaka/Lokayata School Charvaka (Founder), Brihaspati Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Materialism, Not directly related to Buddhism
Ajivika School Makkhali Gosala (Founder) Niyati (Doctrine), Fatalism and Determinism, Close association with Buddhism

This table maintains clarity by organizing the information into columns: the philosophical school, key figures, associated texts, philosophical perspective, and relation to Buddhism.

In conclusion,

  • The Indian schools of philosophy represent a rich tapestry of thought, contributing to humanity’s understanding of life, consciousness, and the pursuit of higher ideals. The dialogue and interactions between these diverse traditions have not only shaped the cultural heritage of India but have also provided profound insights that resonate with seekers of wisdom around the world.

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