Jainism And Buddhism PPT Download Notes

Jainism And Buddhism PPT Download

Today we will give you the notes of Jainism And Buddhism PPT Download UPSC Notes, with these notes you can clear almost all your doubts and it will help you to pass your upcoming exams, if you are a teacher then it will help you a lot. Well, you can start your journey with these notes.

Jainism And Buddhism – Lec 5


  • If you have a problem while clicking on next, (Just tap) on the slide instead of clicking Next Botton
  • If you are viewing this PPT on your phone, please make it full screen and then view it. ( Press: 3 dots in PPT, then Full Screen)
  • Whatever is written in the PPT is different and whatever is written below is different.

👉( Download the Complete Google Drive Folder in 1 Click) 👈

(Read this if you are a teacher)

  • If you want to Teach on YouTube, you can use these notes. We will never make any copyright claim nor will we take any money from you, just do not remove our name or website name from these notes and if possible, link it. Please give it in the description.
  • You will be given COMPLETE notes that too with (EXPLAINATION + Example). Keep checking this website daily.
  • If you have any questions in your mind, you can ask in the comment box. We will try to reply immediately, thank you.

(Read this if you are a student)

  • It is our responsibility to arrange the notes, you should concentrate on your studies.
  • You can start studying on YouTube later and first put your 100% in passing the exam.
  • If you have any questions in your mind, you can ask in the comment box. We will try to reply immediately. Don’t feel uncomfortable, just comment, we will take care of the rest.

Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism and Jainism are two ancient Indian spiritual traditions. Buddhism, founded by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha), emphasizes the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path as a means to end suffering and attain enlightenment. Jainism, founded by Mahavira, focuses on non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness, and asceticism, with the ultimate goal of liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Both religions advocate compassion, self-improvement, and a path to spiritual awakening but differ in their beliefs and practices, with Buddhism incorporating a middle path and rejecting the caste system, while Jainism emphasizes extreme non-violence and austerity.

Here is a table outlining some key aspects of Buddhism and Jainism:

Aspect Buddhism Jainism
Founder Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) Mahavira
Time of Origin Around 6th century BCE Around 6th century BCE
Place of Origin India India
Central Teachings Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path Three Jewels (Right Faith, Right Knowledge, Right Conduct)
Belief in God Generally atheistic; no creator deity Generally atheistic; no creator deity
Key Texts Tripitaka (Pali Canon) and Mahayana Sutras Agamas and Svetambara/Jain Agamas
Ultimate Goal Nirvana (liberation from suffering) Moksha (liberation from rebirth cycle)
Concept of Self Anatta (no permanent self) Anatta (no permanent self)
Non-Violence Emphasizes non-violence and compassion towards all beings Emphasizes non-violence and compassion towards all beings
Ascetic Practices Common, especially among monks and nuns Common, especially among monks and nuns
Reincarnation Belief in reincarnation (samsara) Belief in reincarnation (samsara)
Worship Worship of Buddha’s images and relics Worship of Tirthankara images and symbols
Major Sects Theravada, Mahayana, Vajrayana Digambara, Svetambara
Symbol Dharma Wheel Ahimsa Hand (Hand of non-violence)

Please note that Buddhism and Jainism share several similarities due to their common historical and cultural background in ancient India, including their emphasis on non-violence, the concept of karma, and the pursuit of spiritual liberation. However, they also have distinct teachings and practices that set them apart from each other.

Cultural Significance of Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism and Jainism are two ancient Indian religions that originated in the region of Magadha, now Bihar and have endured through the ages. Jains adhere to the belief that their faith comprises individuals who have mastered and restrained their desires. Unlike Jainism, which lacks a single founder, the tenets of Jainism are disseminated to the world during challenging and diverse eras by a guiding teacher referred to as a Tirthankara. On the other hand, Buddhism, one of the world’s major religions, also originated in the Indian subcontinent and subsequently spread to significant parts of Southeast Asia. The narrative of Siddhartha, who later became known as Buddha, is intertwined with the inception of Buddhism, and all of Buddhism’s traditions, beliefs, and practices are attributed to Buddha.

Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Buddhism and Jainism

Here’s a table summarizing the causes of the origin of Buddhism and Jainism:

Cause of Origin Buddhism Jainism
Perplexity by Vedic ceremonies and beliefs Yes Yes
Difficulty in comprehending Upanishadic teachings Yes Yes
Social conflicts due to the caste system Yes Yes
Vaishyas’ desire for social elevation Yes Yes
Hindrance due to the tradition of cow slaughter Yes Yes

This table outlines the common causes that led to the origin of both Buddhism and Jainism.

Key Milestones in the History of Buddhism

Buddhism, originating approximately 2,600 years ago in India, emerged as a transformative way of life with the profound capacity to change individuals. It has since grown to become one of the most influential religions across the South and Southeast Asian regions.

  • This spiritual tradition was founded upon the teachings and life experiences of Siddhartha Gautam, whose birthplace was in 563 BCE, situated near the Indo-Nepal border in Lumbini, governed by the Sakya clan’s royal lineage from Kapilvastu. At the age of 29, Siddhartha Gautam made a momentous decision, forsaking a life of opulence to embrace asceticism, marked by rigorous self-discipline.
  • His path culminated in the attainment of Bodhi, or enlightenment, achieved under a pipal tree in Bodhgaya, Bihar, following 49 days of profound meditation. Notably, in the village of Sarnath, situated near the city of Benares in Uttar Pradesh, Buddha delivered his inaugural sermon, referred to as Dharma-Chakra-Pravartana, signifying the turning of the wheel of law.
  • In the year 483 BCE, at the age of 80, Siddhartha Gautam passed away in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, an event known as Mahaparinibbana.

Here’s a table summarizing key points about Buddhism:

Aspect Information
Origin Began in India around 2,600 years ago as a transformative way of life.
Geographic Influence Significant presence in South and Southeast Asian countries.
Founder Siddhartha Gautam was born in 563 BCE into the Sakya royal lineage.
Birthplace and Early Life Born in Lumbini near the Indo-Nepal border; left a life of wealth for asceticism.
Enlightenment Attained Bodhi (enlightenment) under a pipal tree in Bodhgaya, Bihar.
First Sermon Preached in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, known as Dharma-Chakra-Pravartana.
Death and Passing Away Passed away at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh (Mahaparinibbana).

This table provides a concise overview of key aspects related to Buddhism.

Essential Aspects of Jainism

Jainism, rooted in the teachings of the twenty-four revered teachers known as Tirthankaras, embodies a profound philosophy that emphasizes the pursuit of inner conquest and liberation. Derived from the term ‘Jina,’ which signifies supreme souls free from attachment and aversion, Jainism revolves around individuals who have conquered all passions and achieved liberation.

  • These heroic souls, called ‘jinas,’ form the core of this spiritual tradition, and their followers are known as ‘Jaina.’ Jainism’s rich legacy extends to Indian culture, spirituality, and philosophy, making it a significant contributor.
  • It distinguishes itself as a praxis religion, prioritizing asceticism, mysticism, meditation, virtues such as nonviolence and renunciation, celibacy, self-control, and other virtuous practices. As a sramanic faith, it aligns with the ascetic and monastic traditions, emphasizing solitude and contemplation in the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment.

Here’s a table summarizing key points about Jainism:

Aspect Information
Origin Traced back to the twenty-four teachers (Tirthankaras) who established the path of faith.
Etymology of ‘Jaina’ and ‘Jina’ ‘Jaina’ is derived from ‘Jina,’ signifying supreme souls free of attachment and aversion.
Meaning of ‘Jina’ ‘Jina’ translates to ‘Conqueror,’ denoting the twenty-four Tirthankaras who attained liberation.
Essence of Jainism Jainism revolves around heroic souls known as jinas or self-conquerors.
Followers of Jina Devotees are called ‘Jaina,’ and the religion founded by Jina is known as the ‘Jaina Religion.’
Contribution to Indian Culture Significant contributions to Indian culture, spirituality, and philosophy.
Nature of Jainism More of a praxis religion emphasizing asceticism, mysticism, meditation, virtues, and more.
Sramanic Faith Jainism is a sramanic faith, characterized by asceticism and monkhood.

This table provides a concise overview of key aspects related to Jainism.

How Buddhism and Jainism Share Common Ground: Key Similarities

Factor Explanation
Rejection of Vedas Both Buddhism and Jainism reject the authority of the Vedas and the priestly class.
Founders Both Mahavir Jain and Gautama Buddha were born into royal families and renounced luxurious lives.
Animal Rights Both religions emphasize nonviolence towards animals, treating them with the same regard as humans.
Karma Both Buddhism and Jainism believe in karma, where actions affect the soul through reincarnation.
God and Scripture Neither religion views God as a creator, and their sacred writings aren’t considered divine.
Reincarnation Both Buddhism and Jainism embrace the concept of reincarnation, the soul’s rebirth after death.


Distinguishing Characteristics: Buddhism vs. Jainism

Here is a table summarizing the differences between Buddhism and Jainism:

Aspect Buddhism Jainism
Belief in the Soul Did not believe in the soul. Believed in the soul.
Emphasis on Practitioners Sangha and monks were given prominence. Lay followers were given prominence.
Approach to Ahimsa Emphasized liberal feelings and practical actions. Emphasized extreme Ahimsa.
Path to Salvation Advocated the middle path as a reasonable way to salvation. Embraced methods of salvation that are far from ordinary (extreme).
Spread of the Religion Quickly spread to other countries. Mostly limited to India.

Also read: Download Complete NCERT BOOKS PDF (FREE)


During the later Vedic period, around the 5th century BCE, Buddhism and Jainism emerged as two significant religious and philosophical movements in India.

  • These religions marked a departure from the Vedic traditions that had prevailed before, introducing novel ideas and perspectives on life, suffering, and spiritual growth.
  • Siddhartha Gautama, who later became known as Buddha, challenged the prevailing Brahminical practices and formulated the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path as the core of Buddhist teachings.
  • At the same time, Jainism, founded on the principles of non-violence, truthfulness, and asceticism, emphasized equality and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment.
  • Both Buddhism and Jainism played pivotal roles in shaping the religious and philosophical landscape of ancient India, offering alternative paths to spiritual awakening and ethical living.

Causes of Transformation in Ancient Indian Society and Religion

Here is a table summarizing the causes of the origin of certain religious and social changes during ancient India:

Cause of Origin Impact on Society and Religion
Expensive & complicated Vedic rituals, superstitions, mantras Confusion and disillusionment among the people, seeking simpler alternatives.
The philosophical nature of Upanishadic teachings Limited understanding and accessibility of these teachings.
Rigid caste system Social tensions and desire for change among lower castes.
Vaishya’s desire for social improvement Increased trade and economic prosperity leading to social aspirations.
Supremacy of Brahmins Social unrest and a desire for more equitable systems.
Practice of killing cows Hindrance to the development of a new agricultural economy.

These causes played a significant role in shaping the religious and social landscape of ancient India, leading to the emergence of new philosophies and religions such as Buddhism and Jainism.



Buddhism, founded on the teachings and life experiences of its founder Siddhartha Gautama, who was born around 563 BCE, encourages its followers to tread a balanced path. Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha, advocated avoiding the extremes of indulgence in worldly pleasures and the practice of strict abstinence and asceticism.

  • Instead, he prescribed the ‘Madhyam Marg’ or the middle path, emphasizing a balanced and moderate approach to life and spiritual practice. This central tenet of Buddhism guides practitioners to find harmony and avoid the pitfalls of excess or extreme austerity.


Here is a table summarizing the information provided about Gautama Buddha:

Gautama Buddha (563 BC-483 BC)
Names and Titles Siddharta, Sakyamuni, Tathagata
Clan Belonged to the Sakya Clan
Parents Father: Siddhodana, Mother: Mayadevi
Birthplace Lumbini, capital of Sakya republic
Teachers Alarakama and UdrakaRamputra
Enlightenment At the age of 33 under the Pipal tree at Uruvella (Bodhgaya) on the banks of the river Niranjana (Falgu).
First Sermon Sarnath (Deer Park) on Dharma Chakra Parivarthana to 5 disciples, including Mahakasyapa (first disciple).
Mahaparinirvana At Kushinagar at the age of 80.


Here is a table summarizing the literary sources related to Buddhism along with short descriptions:

Literary Sources Description
Ceylonese Chronicles – MAHAVAMSA by Mahanama: A historical chronicle detailing the history of Sri Lanka, including Buddhist events and kingship.
– DEPAVAMSA: Another historical text that supplements the Mahavamsa.
– ATTAKATHA: Commentaries on the Pali Canon, providing interpretations and explanations of Buddhist scriptures.
Tibetan Chronicles – DIVYAVANDANA-KALACHAKRA: Tibetan texts containing narratives and teachings related to Buddhism, including the Kalachakra Tantra.
TRIPITAKA/ Three baskets of Buddhist scripture – SUTTAPITAKA: Collection of discourses and teachings attributed to Buddha and his disciples.
– VINAYPITAKA: Contains monastic rules and regulations for Buddhist monks and nuns.
– ABHIDHAMPITAKA: Focuses on the doctrine and philosophy of Buddhism, providing a more analytical and systematic approach to the teachings.
JATAKA FOLKLORE – Stories related to the birth of Buddha and his previous lives (Jataka tales), illustrating moral lessons and virtues.
– In Chinese, they are called SADOK, and they offer insights into Buddhist teachings through parables.
MILINDAPANHA – MILINDAPANHA, also known as the “Questions of Milinda,” is a dialogue between the Greek king Menander (Milinda) and the Buddhist monk Nagasena.
– It explores various aspects of Buddhist philosophy and provides answers to Milinda’s questions about Buddhism.

These literary sources are invaluable for understanding the history, teachings, and philosophy of Buddhism, offering a diverse range of information and insights into this ancient religion.


Here is a table summarizing the Three Jewels of Buddhism (TRIRATNA):

Three Jewels of Buddhism (TRIRATNA) Description
Buddha – Refers to Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism and the historical Buddha.
– Represents the ideal of enlightenment and the path to awakening.
Dhamma (Dharma) – Refers to the teachings and doctrines of Buddhism as expounded by the Buddha.
– Includes the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and other core principles.
Sangha – Represents the community of Buddhist practitioners, including monks, nuns, and lay followers.
– Provides spiritual support and a sense of belonging on the path to enlightenment.

The Three Jewels of Buddhism, often referred to as the Triratna, are fundamental aspects of Buddhist faith and practice, embodying the ideals, teachings, and community that guide followers on their spiritual journey.

Foundations of Buddhism in Ancient Philosophies

Here is a table summarizing the roots of Buddhism in past philosophies and traditions:

Roots of Buddhism in Past Philosophies Description
Vedanta – Influence from the Vedanta philosophy, which emphasizes the pursuit of spiritual knowledge and understanding of the self (Atman).
– Buddhism drew upon Vedanta ideas while diverging in its rejection of certain Vedic rituals and the concept of Atman.
Sankhya Philosophy – Borrowed elements from Sankhya philosophy, particularly the concepts of suffering (dukkha) and the cycle of birth and death (samsara).
– Buddhism expanded on these ideas and provided its unique solutions to address them.
Upanishads (Upansihada) – Upanishads, a collection of ancient texts that explore the nature of reality and consciousness, influenced early Buddhist thought.
– Buddhism incorporated some Upanishadic concepts while developing its own distinctive teachings, such as the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

These roots in past philosophies and traditions demonstrate how Buddhism emerged from a historical and philosophical context, incorporating and reshaping existing ideas to create its unique framework for spiritual understanding and practice.


Here is a table summarizing the great events of Buddha’s life along with their corresponding symbols:

Great Events of Buddha’s Life Symbols
Avakranti (Conception or Descent) White Elephant (Avakranti): Symbolizes the miraculous conception of Siddhartha Gautama in his mother’s dream, indicating his future greatness as a spiritual leader.
Jati (Birth) Lotus and Bull (Jati): The lotus represents purity and enlightenment, while the bull symbolizes strength. Together, they signify the auspicious birth of Siddhartha, who was destined for spiritual greatness.
Mahabhinishkramana (Great Renunciation) Horse (Mahabhinishkramana): Represents Siddhartha’s renunciation of his princely life, leaving behind his palace and family to embark on his spiritual quest as a wandering ascetic.
Nirvana/ Sambodhi (Enlightenment) Bodhi Tree (Nirvana/ Sambodhi): Under the Bodhi tree, Siddhartha attained enlightenment and became the Buddha. It signifies the place of his profound spiritual realization.
Dharmachakra Parivarthana (First Sermon) Wheel (Dharmachakra Parivarthana): The wheel, often called the Dharma wheel, represents the first sermon of Buddha at Sarnath, where he set in motion the wheel of his teachings (Dharma) on the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.
Mahaparinirvana (Death) Stupa (Mahaparinirvana): Stupas are Buddhist monuments that symbolize the final resting place of Buddha after his death (Mahaparinirvana). They serve as places of veneration and meditation.

These symbols represent key moments and aspects of Buddha’s life and teachings, and they continue to hold significance in Buddhist iconography and symbolism.


Here’s a table summarizing the Five Teachings of Buddha (Panchshila) with descriptions in one paragraph each:

Teaching of Buddha (Panchshila) Description
No Killing (Respect for Life) This teaching emphasizes the avoidance of taking the life of any living being, promoting compassion and non-violence towards all creatures. It encourages practitioners to respect and value all forms of life.
Abstention from Theft Abstention from theft involves refraining from taking what does not belong to you without permission or right. It promotes honesty, integrity, and respect for others’ property, fostering a sense of responsibility and trustworthiness.
Abstention from Sexual Misconduct This teaching underscores the importance of maintaining ethical and respectful conduct in sexual relationships. It encourages fidelity, consent, and the responsible expression of one’s sexuality, promoting harmony in personal and social interactions.
Abstention from Falsehood Abstaining from falsehood entails refraining from lying or engaging in deceptive speech. It promotes honesty, truthfulness, and transparency in communication, fostering trust and integrity in one’s interactions with others.
Abstention from Intoxication This teaching advises against the use of substances that cloud the mind and judgment, emphasizing the importance of clear thinking and responsible behavior. It encourages practitioners to maintain mental clarity and mindfulness in their actions and decisions.


Here is a table summarizing the Four Noble Truths (Arya Satyas) along with their descriptions:

Four Noble Truths (Arya Satyas) Description
1. World is full of misery (Sabbam Dukkam) This truth acknowledges the existence of suffering (dukkha) as an inherent part of human life. It recognizes that suffering is widespread and pervasive, encompassing physical and mental pain, dissatisfaction, and impermanence.
2. Desire is a root cause of sorrow (Pratitya Samputpada) The second truth identifies the cause of suffering as craving and attachment (tanha), which lead to suffering and dissatisfaction. It emphasizes the interconnectedness of suffering and desire, highlighting the role of desire as a root cause of sorrow.
3. Desire can be conquered (Dukha Nirodha) This truth offers hope by asserting that suffering can be overcome or extinguished. It suggests that the cessation of craving and attachment can lead to the end of suffering, providing a path to liberation from dukkha.
4. Desire can be conquered by following Astangika marga The fourth truth outlines the Eightfold Path (Astangika Marga), which serves as a practical guide to achieving the cessation of desire and suffering. It encompasses right view, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration as the means to attain enlightenment and liberation from suffering.



Here is a table summarizing the Eight-Fold Path (Astangika Marga) along with its components:

Eight-Fold Path (Astangika Marga) Components
Right View – Developing a correct understanding of the nature of reality, suffering, and the path to liberation.
Right Intention – Cultivating positive and ethical intentions, such as renunciation, goodwill, and harmlessness.
Right Speech – Engaging in truthful, kind, and non-harmful communication.
Right Action – Behaving ethically and adhering to moral principles in one’s actions.
Right Livelihood – Choosing a livelihood that does not harm others and aligns with Buddhist principles.
Right Mindfulness – Developing awareness and mindfulness of one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Right Effort – Exerting effort to overcome unwholesome thoughts and behaviors while nurturing wholesome ones.
Right Concentration – Cultivating deep levels of concentration and meditation to attain higher states of consciousness and wisdom.

The Eight-Fold Path serves as a comprehensive guide for living a life of ethical conduct, mental development, and spiritual growth in accordance with Buddhist principles.


Certainly, here’s a table summarizing the Five Precepts (Panchashil) with descriptions in a paragraph for each precept:

Five Precepts (Panchashil) Description
1. Violence The first precept, violence, advises individuals to abstain from causing harm or violence to any living being. It underscores the principle of non-violence (ahimsa) and encourages the cultivation of compassion and empathy towards all sentient beings. By adhering to this precept, one strives to promote a harmonious and non-aggressive approach to life.
2. Stealing The second precept, stealing, urges individuals to refrain from taking what is not rightfully theirs without permission. It emphasizes the values of honesty and integrity, encouraging respect for the property and belongings of others. Practicing this precept fosters a sense of responsibility and trustworthiness in one’s actions.
3. Sexual Misconduct The third precept, sexual misconduct, advises against engaging in inappropriate or harmful sexual behavior. It promotes ethical conduct in relationships and encourages individuals to respect the boundaries and well-being of themselves and others. This precept serves as a guideline for maintaining responsible and respectful sexual interactions.
4. Lying or Gossip The fourth precept, lying or gossip, encourages individuals to abstain from lying, deceit, or engaging in harmful gossip. It places a strong emphasis on truthfulness, honesty, and responsible speech. Practicing this precept fosters an atmosphere of trust and transparency in one’s communication with others.
5. Taking Intoxicating Substances The fifth precept, taking intoxicating substances, advises against consuming intoxicants such as drugs or alcohol that impair judgment and mindfulness. It promotes clarity of mind and responsible behavior, emphasizing the importance of remaining sober and mindful in one’s actions and decisions. This precept supports mental clarity and spiritual growth.

These Five Precepts, collectively known as Panchashil, provide a moral framework for ethical living in Buddhism, guiding practitioners toward virtuous conduct and mindfulness in their daily lives.


Here is a table summarizing the Three Pitakas in Buddhism along with additional important Buddhist texts:

Three Pitakas Description
Vinaya Pitaka – Contains rules of conduct and discipline specifically applicable to the monastic life of Buddhist monks and nuns. It provides guidelines for ethical behavior and community life within the Sangha (monastic community).
Sutta Pitaka – Consists of the primary teachings and Dhamma (doctrine) of the Buddha. It is divided into five Nikayas (collections):

  1. Digha Nikaya: It is a collection of long discourses of the Buddha, offering profound teachings and stories.
  2. Majjhima Nikaya: Comprising medium-length discourses, it provides in-depth explorations of various aspects of Buddhist doctrine.
  3. Samyutta Nikaya: This collection groups together related teachings and focuses on interconnected themes and topics.
  4. Anguttara Nikaya: It consists of numerical discourses, organizing teachings into numerical patterns for easy memorization and comprehension.
  5. Khuddaka Nikaya: A diverse collection of texts, including the Dhammapada and Jataka tales, offering a wide range of Buddhist wisdom and narratives.

Each Nikaya contains a collection of discourses and teachings on various aspects of Buddhism.

Abhidamma Pitaka – Represents a philosophical analysis and systematic exploration of the Buddha’s teachings and the scholarly endeavors of Buddhist monks. It delves into intricate details of Buddhist doctrine, psychology, and metaphysics.
Other Important Buddhist Texts – Includes texts such as Divyavadana, Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Milind Panha, and others that are valuable sources of Buddhist literature, history, and stories. These texts offer supplementary insights and narratives related to Buddhism.

The Three Pitakas, along with these additional texts, form a rich repository of Buddhist scriptures and knowledge, providing guidance on ethical conduct, teachings of the Buddha, and profound philosophical insights.


Here is a table summarizing the features of the Buddhist Sangha:

Buddhist Sangha Features Description
Oldest Prayer Place – A historical place where slaves, insolvents, and the diseased were not permitted to enter, indicating a degree of exclusivity and hierarchy within the Sangha.
Pathimokshas (Crimes) – The Sangha had 64 types of prohibited offenses known as Pathimokshas, outlining rules of conduct for monastics. These rules guided ethical behavior and discipline within the community.
Inclusion of Women – Unlike some contemporaneous religious communities, Buddhism allowed women to join the Sangha as nuns (bhikkhunis), offering them a path to spiritual practice and enlightenment on equal terms with men.

These features characterize the structure and values of the Buddhist Sangha, highlighting its rules, regulations, and inclusivity.


Here is a table summarizing important Buddhist scholars along with their notable contributions:

Buddhist Scholar Notable Contributions
Moggaliputta Tissa – Launched Emperor Ashoka’s Dhamma campaign, promoting Buddhist principles and ethics throughout the Mauryan Empire.
Asvaghosha – Authored “Buddhacharita,” an epic Sanskrit poem narrating the life of Buddha. – Wrote the Sanskrit drama “Sariputra Prakaran,” focusing on the disciple Sariputra’s role in Buddhism.
Nagarjuna – Founded the Madhyamika school of Mahayana Buddhism, advocating the theory of “Sunyavada” or “Emptiness.” – Known for his important work “Mulamadhyamakakarika,” which expounds the philosophy of emptiness.
Buddhaghosha – Regarded as the most important commentator of Theravada Buddhism. – Notable work includes the “Visuddhimagga,” a comprehensive guide to Theravadin Buddhist practice and philosophy.
Dharmakirti – Taught at the Nalanda University and was often referred to as the ‘Kant of India’ for his contributions to Buddhist epistemology and logic.

These scholars made significant contributions to Buddhist philosophy, literature, and the propagation of Buddhist teachings.


In Mahayana Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is a revered figure who possesses the ability to attain nirvana, the ultimate state of liberation from suffering and the cycle of rebirth.

  • However, what distinguishes a Bodhisattva is their selfless compassion and unwavering commitment to alleviating the suffering of all sentient beings.
  • They choose to delay their own enlightenment and continue their existence in the cycle of birth and death to assist others on their spiritual journey. This concept bears a resemblance to the notion of incarnations in Hindu mythology, where divine beings take on earthly forms to guide and help humanity.
  • Bodhisattvas are not only central to Buddhist philosophy but also prominent figures in Buddhist literature and art, embodying the virtues of compassion, wisdom, and selflessness that serve as an inspiration to all seekers of spiritual enlightenment.

Here is a table summarizing various Bodhisattvas along with their notable traits:

Bodhisattva Traits
Maitreya – Future Buddha and one of the earliest Bodhisattvas. – Also known as Ajitabodhisattva. – Often depicted holding a water phial in his left hand. – The popular laughing Buddha is claimed to be an incarnation of Maitreya.
Samantabhadra – Universal Bodhisattva associated with meditation. – Manifestation is seen in actions that benefit all sentient beings.
Vajrapani – Depicted holding a thunderbolt, symbolizing power. – One of the three protective deities around Buddha, along with Manjusri and Avalokiteshvara.
Avalokiteshvara – Known for being kind-hearted. – Manifests Buddha’s compassion and mercy towards all beings.
Kshitigarbha – Guardian of purgatories and protector of children. – Bodhisattva associated with hell-beings and earth immortals.
Amitabha – Known as the Buddha of the Pure Land or Heaven.
Sadaparibhuta – Manifests the spirit of never disparaging others.
Manjushri – Stimulator of understanding and wisdom. – Often depicted holding a book describing the ten paramitas (virtues).
Akasagarbha – Symbolizes boundlessness, similar to space. – Manifestation of wisdom.

These Bodhisattvas represent various qualities and virtues within Buddhist traditions and are revered for their compassionate and enlightened nature.



483 BC

Sattapani cave at Rajgriha. Mahakasyapa Ajatasatru The First Buddhist Council, convened shortly after the Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana, aimed to preserve his teachings and rules for disciples. During this council, Buddha’s teachings were divided into three Pitakas, with Upali compiling the Suttapitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.
Second 383BC Vaishali Sabbakami Kalashoka Divide in Sthaviradins and Mahasangikas

250 BC

Pataliputra MogaliputtaTissa Ashoka Compilation of Abhidamapittaka


Kashmir Vasumitra & Ashvaghosa Kanishka Compilation of Mahavibhasha Shastra. Division of Bhuddhism into Hinayana and Mahayana



  • MAJOR SCHOOLS: Mahayana and Hinayana.
  • OTHER SCHOOLS: Theravada, Vajrayana & Zen.
  • Mahayana, derived from the Sanskrit term “Great Vehicle,” is a prominent branch of Buddhism that sought salvation through the grace and assistance of Buddha and Bodhisattvas. Originating in northern India and Kashmir, Mahayana gradually spread its influence eastward into Central Asia, East Asia, and select regions of Southeast Asia.
  • A distinguishing belief within Mahayana is the notion that Buddha will be born again, signifying the potential for future enlightenment. Practitioners of Mahayana Buddhism often engage in the worship of Buddha in idol form and employ Sanskrit as their primary language.
  • This branch encompasses various sub-schools, including Chittmatra and Madhyamaka, with Zen being a notable subschool prevalent in China and Korea, characterized by its connection to Taoism. Buddhist schools rooted in countries like China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan predominantly belong to the Mahayana tradition, emphasizing compassion and the aspiration to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.
  • Hinayana Buddhism, often referred to as the “Lesser Vehicle,” also known as the “Abandoned Vehicle” or “Defective Vehicle,” adheres closely to the original teachings of Buddha, known as the Doctrine of Elders. Followers of Hinayana Buddhism diligently pursue individual salvation through practices rooted in self-discipline and meditation, aiming to achieve liberation from the cycle of samsara.
  • A distinctive belief within Hinayana is the conviction that Buddha will never be reborn, emphasizing the finality of his existence. Unlike some other Buddhist traditions, Hinayana does not endorse idol worship and employs the Pali language for its scriptures and teachings.
  • In Hinayana, Buddha is regarded as an intellectual guide rather than a deity, and this branch encompasses various subschools, with some of the most notable ones being Sarvastivada, Theravadin, and Sautantrika, each contributing to the rich tapestry of Buddhist thought and practice.
  • Theravada Buddhism, often referred to as the “traditions of the elder,” is the older and more conservative of the two main divisions of Buddhism. It is classified as a Hinayana sect, emphasizing a commitment to becoming Arhats and achieving liberation from the cycle of samsara.
  • In contrast, Sarvastivadins, a distinct Buddhist group, believe that all empirical phenomena are inherently impermanent, while the dharma factors are eternally existing realities, operating momentarily. This perspective suggests that the world’s empirical manifestations are illusory but exist outside the empirical realm.
  • Theravada Buddhism originated in Sri Lanka and subsequently spread throughout Southeast Asia. It has become the dominant religious tradition in countries such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, where its teachings and practices have had a profound influence on the culture and way of life.
  • Vajrayana, often referred to as “The Vehicle of the Thunderbolt” or tantric Buddhism, is a distinct Buddhist school that developed in India around the 9th century CE.
  • This particular branch of Buddhism places a strong emphasis on acquiring magical powers as a means to attain liberation. Vajrayana is closely associated with Tibetan Buddhism and is characterized by its worship of female deities, such as Taras.
  • Over time, Vajrayana Buddhism gained popularity, particularly in Eastern India, with regions like Bengal and Bihar embracing its teachings and practices. The school’s emphasis on esoteric rituals and the use of symbolism distinguishes it from other Buddhist traditions, contributing to its unique identity and appeal among practitioners.
  • Zen Buddhism, often referred to as Chan Buddhism in its Chinese origin, is a school that emerged within the Mahayana tradition. Its roots can be traced back to China during the Tang dynasty when it was known as the Chan school of Chinese Buddhism. Over time, Zen Buddhism evolved into various schools and became renowned for its unique approach to practice and enlightenment.
  • Zen Buddhism spread beyond China and made its way to Japan during the 7th century CE, where it gained a strong foothold and continues to thrive as a prominent Buddhist tradition.
  • One of the most distinctive features of Zen Buddhism is its emphasis on meditation as the primary means of achieving spiritual insight and enlightenment.
  • Zen practitioners engage in rigorous meditation practices, often involving focused concentration and the guidance of a teacher, known as a Zen master. This meditation-focused approach sets Zen apart and has greatly influenced the way Buddhism is practiced in both China and Japan.



  • Buddhism, as a transformative religious and philosophical tradition, placed a strong emphasis on ethical conduct over elaborate rituals and animal sacrifices. Unlike many other religions, Buddhism does not recognize the existence of a god or an eternal soul, focusing instead on the pursuit of enlightenment through the Middle Path—a balanced and moderate way of life.
  • It played a pioneering role in propagating liberal and democratic values by granting equal status to women and vehemently opposing the caste system and all forms of hierarchy and discrimination. Additionally, Buddhism challenged the authority of the Vedas, offering a faith grounded in rationality and critical thinking, paving the way for a more open and questioning approach to spirituality and ethics.
  • Buddhism’s cultural contributions were far-reaching and transformative. The construction of magnificent stupas at sites like Sanchi, Bharhut, and Gaya, alongside the creation of chaityas (prayer halls) and viharas (monastic residences), exemplified the architectural and artistic achievements of Buddhist culture.
  • Additionally, Buddhism played a pivotal role in advancing education through prestigious residential universities like Taxila, Nalanda, and Vikramasila, fostering intellectual growth and knowledge exchange.
  • The teachings of Buddhism also led to the development of languages like Pali and local dialects, enriching linguistic diversity. Most significantly, Buddhism served as a conduit for the spread of Indian culture to various parts of Asia, leaving an enduring cultural legacy that continues to influence societies across the continent.



Here is a table of important terms and their meanings related to Buddhism:

ARHATS Liberated beings
NIRVANA State of Supreme Bliss
SHEEL When a layperson leaves home to live as a Buddhist renunciate among a community of bhikkhus
ŚRAMAṆA One who labors, toils, or exerts themselves for a higher or religious purpose
UPASAMPADĀ Rite and ritual of ascetic vetting (ordination) that allows a candidate to enter the community as Upasampadā (ordained) and undertake an ascetic life
VASSA Three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners, typically during the wet season from July to October
UPOSTHA A Buddhist day of observance for inner calm and joy, emphasizing the cleansing of the defiled mind
PAVARANA Assembly at the end of Vassa
POSADHA A day for the restoration of vows



Certainly, here’s the table with a separate line for S.no:

S.no Causes for the Decline of Buddhism
1. Decline of Buddhist Sanghas due to the violation of Buddhist principles and discipline.
2. The adoption of Sanskrit, the language of the elite, leading to a disconnect with the masses.
3. Invasions by the Huns in the 5th & 6th centuries and Turkish invaders in the 12th century resulted in the destruction of monasteries.
4. Buddhism was primarily an urban religion, and the impact of Islam in urban regions led to its decline.
5. The revival of Brahmanism and internal divisions among Buddhists weakened the faith.
6. Rajput rulers’ warlike nature made it difficult to follow the policy of Ahimsa (non-violence).
7. Loss of royal patronage, which had been a significant source of support for Buddhism.

Now, each cause is numbered for clarity.


Here’s a table listing UNESCO’s heritage sites related to Buddhism:

Heritage Site Location
Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara Nalanda, Bihar
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Bodh Gaya, Bihar
Ajanta Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra

These are the UNESCO World Heritage Sites associated with Buddhism in India. Additionally, initiatives like the Heritage City Development Scheme (HRIDAY) and the identification of three Buddhist circuits aim to promote tourism and create employment opportunities for the region.



Jainism, an ancient religion, gained prominence in the 6th century B.C. through the teachings of Lord Mahavira. The term ‘Jain’ is derived from ‘jina’ or ‘jaina,’ signifying the ‘Conqueror,’ as Jains seek to conquer their inner passions and attain spiritual liberation. Jainism reveres 24 Tirthankaras, or great teachers, with Rishabhanath being the first among them. Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara, was born in Varanasi, and the 24th and final Tirthankara was Vardhaman Mahavira. Notably, the doctrines of Jainism predate those of Buddhism, highlighting the rich antiquity and spiritual depth of this faith.

Table of VARDHAMAN MAHAVIRA (539-467 BC)

Vardhaman Mahavira, a prominent figure in the history of Jainism, was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali and belonged to the Gnatrika Clan. He lived during the same era as Siddhartha Gautama, who later became known as Buddha. His parents were Siddhartha and Trisala, with his mother being the sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka. Mahavira was married to Yasoda and had a daughter named Anojja or Priyadarsana. He received his spiritual education from teachers Alarakama and Udraka Ramputra.

  • At the age of 42, Mahavira achieved Kaivalya, the highest spiritual knowledge, while meditating under a Sal tree. This profound accomplishment earned him the titles Mahavir, Jina Jitendriya (one who conquered his senses), and Nigrantha (free from all bonds). He delivered his first sermon in Pava and continued to spread his teachings throughout his life.
  • Mahavira passed away at Pava near Rajagriha at the age of 72. Each Tirthankara in Jainism is associated with a symbol, and Mahavira’s symbol was a lion. His life and teachings continue to be revered by Jain followers, contributing significantly to the Jain tradition.

Here is a table summarizing the information about Vardhaman Mahavira:

Aspect Details
Birth Kundagrama near Vaishali
Parents Siddhartha and Trisala
Marriage Yasoda, with a daughter Anojja or Priyadarsana
Teachers Alarakama and Udraka Ramputra
Attainment of Kaivalya At the age of 42 under Sal tree
Titles Mahavir, Jina Jitendriya, Nigrantha
First Sermon At Pava
Death Pava near Rajagriha at the age of 72
Symbol A lion

Vardhaman Mahavira was a significant figure in the development of Jainism, known for his spiritual knowledge and contributions to the religion.


Here’s a table summarizing the teachings of Mahavira:

Teachings of Mahavira Description
Rejected authority of the Vedas & Vedic rituals. Mahavira did not accept the Vedas or Vedic rituals as authoritative in his teachings.
Did not believe in the existence of God. He did not believe in the concept of a supreme deity or god in his philosophy.
Believed in Karma & Transmission of Soul. Mahavira emphasized the significance of karma (the consequences of one’s actions) and the concept of the transmigration of the soul (reincarnation).
Emphasized equality but did not condemn the varna system. He advocated for equality among individuals but did not explicitly condemn the varna (caste) system that existed in his time.
Advocated a life of austerity and non-violence. Mahavira promoted a life of asceticism, self-discipline, and non-violence (ahimsa) as central principles in his teachings.

These teachings formed the core of Mahavira’s philosophy and continue to be fundamental principles in Jainism.


Here’s a table summarizing the tenets of Jainism based on the provided information:

Tenets of Jainism Description
Belief in God Jainism recognized the existence of gods but placed them lower in importance compared to the Jina, which refers to spiritual conquerors like Mahavira. In Jainism, the focus is on individual spiritual progress rather than worshiping gods.
Approach to the Varna System Jainism did not explicitly condemn the varna (caste) system, which was prevalent in ancient India, but it aimed to mitigate the negative aspects of the varna order and the ritualistic Vedic religion. The religion focused more on the individual’s spiritual development and conduct.
Belief in Transmigration of the Soul and Karma According to Mahavira’s teachings, a person’s position in the varna system is determined by their past actions (karma) and the consequences of their deeds. Jainism believes in the “transmigration of the soul,” meaning that the soul is reborn in various forms based on its accumulated karma from past lives.

These tenets reflect key aspects of Jainism’s philosophical and ethical framework.


Here’s a table summarizing the concept of Anekantavada:

Anekantavada Description
Emphasis on Ultimate Truth and Reality Anekantavada emphasizes that the ultimate truth and reality are complex and multifaceted. It is often referred to as the “theory of plurality.” This concept recognizes that reality cannot be reduced to a single, simplistic perspective.
Acceptance of Multiple Viewpoints Anekantavada encourages the simultaneous acceptance of multiple, diverse, and sometimes contradictory viewpoints. It acknowledges that different individuals or philosophies may perceive reality from unique angles, and all these perspectives contribute to a more comprehensive understanding.

Anekantavada is a fundamental principle in Jain philosophy that highlights the multifaceted nature of reality and encourages open-mindedness and tolerance towards diverse perspectives.


Here’s a table summarizing the concept of Syadvada:

Syadvada Description
Conditional Judgments Syadvada asserts that all judgments are conditional, meaning they hold true only in specific conditions, circumstances, or senses.
Seven Modes of Prediction (Saptabhangi) Syadvada employs seven modes of prediction (Saptabhangi Nayavada) to analyze and express the multifaceted nature of reality. These modes allow for a more nuanced and comprehensive understanding of truth.
Examination of Different Probabilities Syadvada, literally meaning the method of examining different probabilities, encourages a thorough examination of various aspects and possibilities to arrive at a more accurate and holistic perspective on reality.

Syadvada is a significant principle in Jain’s philosophy that promotes the recognition of the conditional nature of judgments and the use of multiple viewpoints to understand the complexity of reality.


Here’s a table summarizing the Five Doctrines of Jainism:

Doctrine Meaning Description
Ahimsa Non-injury to a living being Ahimsa is the principle of non-violence and non-harming. It emphasizes not causing harm to any living being, whether physically or mentally.
Satya Do not speak a lie Satya is the doctrine of truthfulness. It encourages adherents to always speak the truth and avoid falsehood in speech and communication.
Asteya Do not steal Asteya is the principle of non-stealing. It teaches not taking what does not belong to you and not engaging in theft or dishonesty.
Aparigraha Do not acquire property Aparigraha advocates non-possessiveness and non-attachment to material possessions. It encourages a simple and minimalist lifestyle.
Brahmacharya Observe continence Brahmacharya promotes self-control and celibacy, especially in the context of sexual behavior and desires. It emphasizes restraint and purity.

These Five Doctrines of Jainism serve as fundamental ethical and moral principles guiding the lives of Jain practitioners. They are designed to promote non-violence, truthfulness, honesty, non-attachment, and self-discipline.


Buddhism primarily focuses on the pursuit of liberation, a goal that does not necessitate elaborate rituals. Instead, it emphasizes the attainment of liberation through the guidance of three essential principles known as the Three Jewels or Triratna.

  • These Three Jewels, which include the Buddha (the enlightened teacher), the Dhamma (the teachings or doctrine), and the Sangha (the community of practitioners), provide the foundation for Buddhist practice and spiritual growth.
  • By following these principles, individuals seek not only personal liberation but also the alleviation of suffering and the realization of profound wisdom and compassion.

Here’s a table summarizing the Three Jewels or Triratna in Jainism:

Three Jewels Meaning Description
Right Faith (Samyakdarshana) Belief in the teachings of Jainism Right Faith involves having a firm belief in the core principles and doctrines of Jainism, including karma, non-violence, and the path to liberation.
Right Knowledge (Samyakjnana) A true understanding of Jain teachings Right Knowledge refers to acquiring a deep and accurate understanding of the Jain philosophy, scriptures, and spiritual truths.
Right Action (Samyakcharita) Ethical and righteous conduct Right Action encompasses living a life in accordance with the ethical principles of Jainism, including practicing non-violence and truthfulness.

These Three Jewels, or Triratna, are essential components of Jainism and guide practitioners on the path to spiritual development and liberation from the cycle of birth and death. They emphasize the importance of faith, knowledge, and ethical conduct in the Jain way of life.


Here is a table summarizing the spread of Jainism and the development of its two major sects:

Spread of Jainism Description
Through Sangha – Jainism spread through the Sangha, which consisted of both women and men who followed the Jain path of asceticism and non-violence.
Patronage of Chandragupta Maurya – Jainism received royal patronage under the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
Kharaveli of Kalinga and South Indian Dynasties – Jainism also spread with the support of rulers such as Kharaveli of Kalinga and various royal dynasties in South India, including the Gangas, Kadambas, Chalukyas, and Rashtrakutas.
Split After Bhadrabahu’s Return – When Bhadrabahu, the guru of Chandragupta Maurya, left for South India, his disciple Sthulabahu remained in the North with his followers.
Emergence of Two Sects – After Bhadrabahu returned with his followers, Jainism split into two major sects:

  1. Swetambaras: Followers who wear white clothing and are mainly from the North.
  2. Digambaras: Followers who go sky-clad (naked) and are primarily from the South.

This division marked a significant development in the history of Jainism, leading to the existence of two distinct sects with different practices and beliefs.


The division of the Jain order into two major sects, Digambara and Svetambara, can be traced back to a historical event during a 12-year famine in Magadha. During this famine, a group of Jain monks led by Bhadrabahu moved to South India.

  • While in the South, they adhered to strict ascetic practices, including going sky-clad or naked.
  • Meanwhile, the group that remained in Magadha adopted a more lenient approach and began wearing white clothes.
  • When the famine ended, the Southern group returned to Magadha, but their divergent practices caused a fundamental rift within Jainism, ultimately leading to the emergence of the two distinct sects, each with its own set of beliefs and practices.


Here is a table summarizing the key characteristics and features of the Digambara sect in Jainism:

Digambara Sect Characteristics
Clothing Belief – Monks in this sect believe in complete nudity, with male monks not wearing any clothes and female monks wearing unstitched plain white sarees.
Adherence to Five Vows – Followers of Digambara adhere to all five vows of Jainism: Satya (truth), Ahimsa (non-violence), Asteya (non-stealing), Aparigraha (non-possessiveness), and Brahmacharya (chastity).
Belief About Liberation for Women – Digambara tradition holds that women cannot achieve liberation, which is a point of difference with the Svetambara sect.
Prominent Exponent – Bhadrabahu, one of the revered figures in Jainism, was a prominent exponent of the Digambara sect.
Major Sub-Sects – Major sub-sects within Digambara include Mula Sangh, Bisapantha, Terapantha, and Taranpantha (also known as Samaiyapantha).
Minor Sub-Sets – Minor sub-sets within Digambara include Gumanapantha and Totapantha.

These characteristics distinguish the Digambara sect within Jainism and highlight its unique beliefs and practices, including nudity for male monks and strict adherence to the five vows.


Here is a table summarizing the key characteristics and features of the Shvetambara sect in Jainism:

Shvetambara Sect Characteristics
Clothing Belief – Monks in this sect wear white clothes, distinguishing them from the Digambara monks who practice nudity.
Adherence to Vows – Shvetambara followers observe only four of the five vows of Jainism, excluding brahmacharya (chastity).
Belief About Liberation for Women – The Shvetambara tradition holds that women can achieve liberation, which sets it apart from the Digambara sect.
Prominent Exponent – Sthulabhadra, a significant figure in Jainism, was a prominent exponent of the Shvetambara sect.
Major Sub-Sects – Major sub-sects within Shvetambara include Murtipujaka, Sthanakvasi, and Terapanthi.

These characteristics distinguish the Shvetambara sect within Jainism, particularly in its beliefs about clothing, vows, and the potential for women to attain liberation.


Here is a table summarizing the Jain Councils along with their venues, chairpersons, and outputs:

Council Venue Chairperson Output
First (300 BC) Patliputra Sthulabahu (Chairperson), Patron – Chandragupta Maurya Compilation of 12 Angas
Second (512 AD) Vallabhi Devardhigani Final compilation of 12 Angas & 12 Upanga

These councils played a crucial role in preserving and codifying the Jain scriptures, known as the Angas and Upangas, and were significant events in Jain history.


Here is a table summarizing important terms related to Jainism:

Term Description
ASRAV – Refers to the inflow of karmas into the soul, which occurs continuously throughout one’s life. Karmas are attracted to the soul due to various actions and intentions.
SAMVARA – Denotes the stoppage or prevention of the influx of material karmas into the soul’s consciousness. It is a crucial step in the process of spiritual purification and liberation.
NIRJARA – Involves the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the soul. This practice is essential for breaking free from the cycle of birth-death-rebirth (samsara) and achieving moksha or liberation.
SALLEKHANA – It is a religious practice in Jainism where individuals voluntarily fast to death by gradually reducing their intake of food and liquids. It is also known as Santhara.
KAIVALYA – Kaivalya, also known as Kevala Jnana, signifies omniscience in Jainism. It represents complete understanding and supreme wisdom, a state that liberated souls (Siddhas) achieve.

These terms are fundamental to Jain philosophy and practice, encompassing aspects of karma, purification, spiritual ascension, and liberation.


Here is a table summarizing important Jain literature and some of the scholars associated with it:

Jain Literature Description Scholars
Canonical Jain Literature – The canonical Jain literature is believed to have originated with Adinath (Rishabhanath), the first Tirthankara. – Adinath (Rishabhanath)
Teachings Before Mahavira – The teachings of the Tirthankaras prior to Mahavira are referred to as “Purva.” – Tirthankaras before Mahavira
Jain Agamas – Jain literature is known as Jain Agamas, which are canonical texts based on the teachings of Mahavira. – Mahavira (as the primary source)
Agama Categories – These Agamas are further categorized into Angas, Mulasutra, Upangas, Prakirnaka Sutra, Chedasutra, and Ulikasutras. – Various Jain scholars and sages
Kalpasutra – Kalpasutra, written by Bhadrabahu, contains biographies of Jain Tirthankaras. – Bhadrabahu
Language – Jain literature is primarily written in the Prakrit language. – Jain Scholars and Monks

These are key aspects of Jain literature, its origins, and its categorization, with Bhadrabahu being one of the notable scholars associated with the Kalpasutra.

Jain Literature Categories

Here is a table summarizing the two categories of Jain literature: Agam or Canonical Literature and Non-Agam Literature.

Type of Literature Description Languages
Agam or Canonical Literature (Agam Sutras) – Agam literature comprises many texts that are considered the sacred books of the Jain religion. These texts contain the teachings and scriptures of Jainism. They are written in Ardha-magadhi, a form of Prakrit language. – Ardha-magadhi (a form of Prakrit language)
Non-Agam Literature – Non-Agam literature includes commentary and explanations of Agam literature, as well as independent works created by ascetics and scholars. These works provide insights into Jain teachings and philosophy. They are written in various languages, including Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsa, Old Marathi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, German, and English. – Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsa, Old Marathi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, German, English, and others.

These two categories of literature play a significant role in preserving and disseminating Jain teachings and philosophy in various languages.


Here is a table summarizing elements of Jain architecture:

Architectural Feature Description
MANASTAMBHA – Manastambha is a prominent feature of Jain temple architecture. It is typically located in front of the temple. The Manastambha is an ornamental pillar structure that carries the image of a Tirthankar on top. These images are often present on all four cardinal directions, emphasizing their religious significance.
BASADIS – Basadis refer to Jain monastic establishments or temples, particularly in the region of Karnataka. These structures play a vital role in Jain religious and cultural life, serving as places of worship, meditation, and communal activities for Jain practitioners.

Key Jain Architectural and Artistic Sites

Here is the table with the location section removed:

Type of Site Description
Layana/Gumphas (Caves) – Ellora Caves (Cave No. 30-35): Known for intricate Jain cave architecture.
– Mangi Tungi Cave: A site of Jain significance.
– Gajapantha Cave: Another Jain cave site.
– Udayagiri-Khandagiri Caves: Feature Jain cave inscriptions and historical significance.
– Hathi-gumpha Cave: Known for ancient Jain inscriptions.
– Sittanavasal Cave: Contains Jain art and inscriptions.
Statues – Gometeshwara/Bahubali Statue: An impressive statue representing Jainism’s values, located in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka.
– Statue of Ahimsa (Rishabnatha): Represents the concept of non-violence (Ahimsa) in Jainism, found in Mangi-Tungi hills, Maharashtra.
Jainalaya (Temple) – Dilwara Temple: Renowned for its stunning Jain temple architecture, situated in Mount Abu, Rajasthan.
– Girnar and Palitana Temple: Showcasing rich Jain architectural heritage in Gujarat.
– Muktagiri Temple: Another significant Jain temple, located in Maharashtra.

This table provides an overview of various Jain architectural and artistic sites without specifying their locations.


Here is a table summarizing the contributions of Jainism:

Contribution Description
Preached Non-violence toward all living beings – Jainism emphasized non-violence (Ahimsa) as a core principle, promoting compassion and respect for all living creatures.
Growth of Prakrit & Kannada languages – The teachings of Vardhaman Mahavir were delivered in the ‘Ardha-Magadhi’ language, making Jainism accessible to the common people and contributing to the development of the Prakrit and Kannada languages.
Introduced new philosophy – Syatvad – Jainism introduced the philosophy of Syatvad, which emphasizes the relativity of truth, acknowledging that truth can have multiple perspectives and interpretations.
Art & architecture – Jainism has made significant contributions to art and architecture, including the creation of statues like the Gometeshwar in Shravanabelagola, temples in places like Khajuraho and Mount Abu, and cave complexes such as the Udaigiri caves and the Indira Sabha of Ellora.
Contributed to the growth of the trading community – Jainism played a role in the development of the trading community, as its principles of honesty, integrity, and non-violence resonated with traders and merchants, fostering ethical business practices.

These contributions highlight the profound impact of Jainism on ethics, language, philosophy, art, architecture, and commerce.


Here is a table summarizing the differences between Jainism and Buddhism:

Aspect Jainism Buddhism
Recognition of God – Jainism recognizes the existence of gods and deities as part of its belief system. – Buddhism does not emphasize the existence of gods and deities; it is non-theistic.
Attitude towards the Varna System – Jainism does not condemn the varna system, and it coexisted with it in ancient India. – Buddhism criticized the varna system and advocated for social equality.
Belief in Reincarnation – Jainism believes in the transmigration of the soul (reincarnation) based on karma. – Buddhism does not explicitly emphasize reincarnation but teaches the cycle of birth and rebirth (samsara).
Approach to Life – Jainism advocates a life of complete austerity, including strict non-violence, asceticism, and renunciation. – Buddhism prescribes the Middle Path, which seeks to balance between extremes of indulgence and asceticism.

These differences highlight distinct philosophical and doctrinal aspects between Jainism and Buddhism, despite some similarities in their emphasis on non-violence and ethical living.

Also Read:

Leave a Comment

Share via
Copy link