Science and Technology Current Affairs UPSC Pre

Science and Technology Current Affairs UPSC Pre

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  • In the intricate tapestry of science and technology, the ongoing exploration of biotechnology, space, health, and information technology unveils a panorama of discovery and innovation. This article delves into the diverse facets of these domains, from cutting-edge medical procedures and the mysteries of celestial bodies to the relentless pursuit of knowledge in space and the dynamic landscape of information technology.

Science and Technology Current Affairs UPSC Pre – (PPT Lec 11)


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“Navigating the Cosmic Frontiers: A Comprehensive Overview of Science and Technology”

In the ever-evolving landscape of science and technology, the intersections of biotechnology, space exploration, health, and information technology have become pivotal in shaping our understanding of the universe and improving our quality of life. This article will delve into the current aspects of these domains, exploring recent advancements, challenges, and future prospects.

Biotechnology: Advancements and Challenges

Biotechnology, a frontier of scientific innovation, has yielded breakthroughs with far-reaching implications. The CAR-T cell procedure, a revolutionary immunotherapy, has shown promise in treating various cancers by reprogramming a patient’s T cells to target cancer cells. However, challenges persist, with concerns about long-term effects and the need for refinement.

  • Diseases, both ancient and emerging, continue to be a focal point of biotechnological research. From the age-old scourge of leprosy to modern concerns like yellow band disease in coral reefs and the global battle against infectious diseases like rabies and monkeypox, biotechnology plays a crucial role in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
  • Zoonotic diseases, those transmitted between animals and humans, exemplify the interconnectedness of various ecosystems. The One Health principle emphasizes a holistic approach to address these challenges, recognizing the interdependence of human, animal, and environmental health.

Below is a table providing an overview of advancements and challenges in biotechnology, along with illustrative examples.

Aspect Description Example
CAR-T Cell Procedure Immunotherapy involving reprogramming a patient’s T cells to target cancer cells. Example: CAR-T cell therapy in treating leukemia and lymphomas, like Kymriah and Yescarta.
Mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland, a challenge in the dairy industry affecting milk production. Example: Biotechnological approaches for developing mastitis-resistant dairy cattle.
Leprosy Chronic bacterial infection affecting the skin and nerves. Example: Advancements in biotechnology for early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy.
Yellow Band Disease Coral disease affecting reef-building corals, contributing to coral reef degradation. Example: Biotechnological interventions to understand and mitigate the impact of the disease.
Wolbachia Bacteria Bacteria with potential applications in controlling mosquito-borne diseases like dengue and Zika. Example: Introduction of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission.
Locust Attack Swarming insect attacks threatening crops and food security. Example: Biotechnological strategies for pest control to mitigate the impact of locust attacks.
Grasshoppers Herbivorous insects with the potential for agricultural pest-related challenges. Example: Biotechnological solutions to manage grasshopper infestations in agriculture.
Marburg Virus Highly infectious virus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Example: Biotechnological research for the development of antiviral treatments for Marburg virus.
Rabies Viral disease affecting the nervous system, often transmitted through animal bites. Example: Advances in biotechnology for the development of rabies vaccines and treatments.
Monkeypox Viral disease similar to smallpox, primarily found in Central and West Africa. Example: Biotechnological research to develop diagnostic tools and vaccines for monkeypox.
Buffalo Pox Viral disease affecting buffaloes, posing challenges in livestock health. Example: Biotechnological interventions for the prevention and control of buffalo pox.
Noro Virus Common cause of viral gastroenteritis, leading to stomach and intestinal inflammation. Example: Biotechnological advancements in diagnostics and antiviral strategies for norovirus.
Langya Virus Emerging tick-borne virus associated with human infections. Example: Biotechnological research to understand the transmission and impact of Langya virus.
Measles Highly contagious viral infection, preventable through vaccination. Example: Biotechnological innovations in developing more effective and safer measles vaccines.
Lumpy Skin Disease Viral disease affecting cattle, causing skin lesions and economic losses. Example: Biotechnological approaches for the development of vaccines against lumpy skin disease.
Tomato Flu Fungal diseases affecting tomato crops, impacting agricultural yields. Example: Biotechnological strategies for engineering disease-resistant tomato varieties.
Zombie Virus Fictional concept often used in popular culture, highlighting ethical considerations in biotechnology. Example: Imaginary virus used in ethical discussions about biotechnological interventions.

This table provides an overview of advancements and challenges in biotechnology, covering a range of diseases, pests, and agricultural concerns, along with illustrative examples that showcase the diverse applications and potential ethical considerations in this field.


Health Challenges and Breakthroughs

Beyond the realm of biotechnology, health sciences grapple with various conditions such as lactose intolerance, myositis, myopia, and autoimmune disorders like arthritis and arteritis. Government initiatives like Bal Sewa Yojna aim to tackle prevalent genetic disorders like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.

  • In the agricultural sphere, the persistence of diseases like banana fungus, dieback disease, and southern rice black-streaked virus underscores the need for innovative solutions in crop protection.

Below is a table providing an overview of health challenges and breakthroughs, along with illustrative examples.

Health Challenge Description Example
Lactose Intolerance Inability to digest lactose, leading to digestive discomfort after consuming dairy products. Example: Breakthroughs in lactase supplements and dairy alternatives for individuals with lactose intolerance.
Myositis Inflammation of muscles, causing muscle weakness and pain. Example: Advances in understanding and treatment options for autoimmune myositis disorders.
Myopia Nearsightedness, a common refractive error affecting vision. Example: Development of innovative corrective lenses, orthokeratology, and refractive surgeries for myopia control.
Arthritis vs Arteritis Arthritis involves joint inflammation, while arteritis refers to inflammation of arteries. Example: Breakthroughs in targeted therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis.
Thalassemia Genetic blood disorder leading to reduced hemoglobin production. Example: Advancements in gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia treatment.
Bal Sewa Yojna Indian government initiative addressing genetic disorders in children. Example: Implementation of comprehensive healthcare programs offering screening and treatment for genetic disorders.
Sickle Cell Anemia Genetic blood disorder causing abnormal hemoglobin and red blood cells. Example: Progress in gene-editing technologies like CRISPR-Cas9 for potential sickle cell anemia cures.
Banana Fungus Fungal disease affecting banana plants, threatening global banana production. Example: Research into biotechnological solutions for developing disease-resistant banana varieties.
Southern Rice Black Streaked Virus Viral disease affecting rice crops, leading to reduced yields. Example: Application of biotechnological strategies for engineering virus-resistant rice varieties.
Athelia Rolfsii Fungal pathogen causing plant diseases, affecting a wide range of crops. Example: Biotechnological approaches for developing fungicide-resistant crops and disease control.
Dieback Disease Plant disease causing the progressive death of shoots and branches. Example: Advancements in understanding the molecular basis of dieback diseases and potential biotechnological interventions.
Neem Tree Medicinal plant with various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Example: Exploration of neem-based formulations for their potential in treating various health conditions.
Zoonotic Diseases Diseases transmitted between animals and humans. Example: Ongoing research into the prevention and management of zoonotic diseases like COVID-19.
One Health Principle Holistic approach recognizing the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health. Example: Collaborative efforts to address zoonotic diseases, promote environmental health, and improve overall well-being.

This table provides an overview of health challenges and breakthroughs, spanning genetic disorders, autoimmune conditions, infectious diseases, and advancements in biotechnological and healthcare interventions. The examples illustrate the diverse array of health-related issues and the ongoing efforts to address them through innovative solutions.

Also read:

Space Exploration: Frontiers Explored and Unveiled

Launchpad placement remains a critical consideration in space exploration. The decision to locate launchpads on the east coast and near the equator is grounded in the Earth’s rotation, harnessing its rotational speed for added velocity. Organizations like NASA, ISRO, JAXA, and China’s space agency compete and collaborate in the quest for knowledge beyond our atmosphere.

  • India’s ISRO has made significant strides with its human space flight programme, Gaganyaan, showcasing a commitment to exploring new frontiers. Differentiating launch vehicles like PSLV, GSLV, and SSLV highlight India’s diverse capabilities in space exploration.
  • The Moon, Earth’s enigmatic satellite, continues to captivate human curiosity. Lunar Maria, the giant and big splat hypotheses, and space bricks are areas of ongoing lunar exploration. The Moon’s influence on Earth’s tides, alongside space phenomena like black holes, gravitational waves, and quasars, have deepened our cosmic understanding.

Below is a table providing an overview of space exploration, highlighting frontiers explored and unveiled, along with illustrative examples.

Aspect Description Example
Launchpad Placement Strategic placement of launchpads for space missions, considering factors like Earth’s rotation. Example: Launchpads on the east coast and near the equator for optimal use of Earth’s rotational speed.
NASA, ISRO, JAXA, China, Others Space agencies leading exploration efforts globally. Example: NASA (United States), ISRO (India), JAXA (Japan), CNSA (China), and ESA (European Space Agency).
Human Space Flight Programmes Initiatives to send humans into space for exploration and research. Example: NASA’s Artemis program aiming to return humans to the Moon and ISRO’s Gaganyaan for Indian human space flight.
Differentiated Launch Vehicles (PSLV, GSLV, SSLV) Various launch vehicles designed for specific purposes and payloads. Example: PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) for polar orbits, GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) for heavier payloads, SSLV (Small Satellite Launch Vehicle) for small satellite launches.
Moon Exploration Studying Earth’s natural satellite to understand its geology and history. Example: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mapping the Moon’s surface and identifying potential landing sites.
Lunar Maria and Hypotheses Large, dark plains on the Moon’s surface and theories about their origin. Example: Lunar Maria exploration to understand their connection to ancient volcanic activity.
Space Bricks Concepts exploring the use of lunar or Martian soil for construction materials. Example: Research on creating bricks using regolith as a potential building material for future space habitats.
Black Holes and Related Phenomena Exploration of enigmatic cosmic entities and their impact on the universe. Example: Event Horizon Telescope capturing the first image of a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy.
Doppler Effect Change in frequency or wavelength in relation to the observer’s motion. Example: Doppler effect used in astronomy to study the motion of celestial objects through shifts in their spectral lines.
Nustar (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) Observing high-energy X-rays from celestial sources for scientific research. Example: NuSTAR launched by NASA to study black holes, supernovae, and other high-energy cosmic phenomena.
Gravity and Gravitational Waves Understanding gravitational forces and detecting ripples in spacetime. Example: LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) detecting gravitational waves from merging black holes.
Quasar and Neutron Star Exploration Studying highly energetic and distant cosmic objects. Example: Hubble Space Telescope observations providing insights into quasars and neutron stars.
22 Degree Halo Circular optical phenomenon caused by ice crystals in the atmosphere. Example: Observations and studies on the formation and characteristics of the 22-degree halo around the Sun.
Milky Way Galaxy Exploration of our home galaxy, studying its structure and contents. Example: Gaia mission mapping the positions and motions of stars in the Milky Way with unprecedented precision.
Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Anti-Matter Unraveling mysteries related to the composition of the universe. Example: Ongoing research using instruments like the Dark Energy Survey to understand the nature of dark energy and dark matter.

This table provides an overview of various aspects of space exploration, showcasing the diverse frontiers explored, from celestial bodies and phenomena to advancements in observational technologies and spacecraft capabilities. The examples reflect the continuous efforts of space agencies and researchers worldwide to unveil the mysteries of the cosmos.


  • As we navigate the complexities of biotechnology, health, space, and information technology, the synergy between these domains propels us into a future of limitless possibilities. Whether unraveling the mysteries of the Moon or harnessing the power of biotechnology to combat diseases, humanity stands at the forefront of scientific discovery. The pursuit of knowledge, fueled by advancements in technology, defines our quest to comprehend the universe and improve the human condition.

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